THE AGE OF THE LIBERAL REVOLUTIONS (1789-1871) - Tamara

Timeline created by tamara32
In History
  • Period:
    1453
    to

    Modern History

    This is the third historical period which takes place between the downfall of Constantinople (1453) and the start of the French Revolution (1789)
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    Enclosure Acts

    The British government banned the open field system, where peasants worked common lands and shared pastures, due to the rise of prices in grain .
    Instead, they introduced enclosed properties, where production aimed at the market and not personal consumption.
    The peasants who used to work there could either buy land (of course the didn't have enough money), work the land in exchange of a wage or work at fabrics in the city, which is what most of them did.
  • John Kay's flying shuttle

    John Kay's flying shuttle
    This greatly accelerated the process of weaving, and reduced the number of workers needed, using only one per loom when before that, two people were needed.
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    First Industrial Revolution

    A series of big changes were happening at the same time, leading to the industrialization of Europe, pioneered by Great Britain.
    Improvement in agriculture and new machinery, increased the capacity to feed people: population increased, which meant there would be more workers who would spend all of their time in fabrics.
    With the steam engine and other innovations, productivity spiked.
    All of these changes led to this system based on freedom of trade and maximum profit, called capitalism.
  • James Watt's steam engine

    James Watt's steam engine
    This machine consisted of:
    burning coal to boil water that would create steam at a high pressure, to create continuous movement that transferred to a machine.
    What's revolutionary about this is the fact that with something as cheap as coal you could create continuous movement without the need of a person to do so.
  • Adam Smith publishes "The Wealth of Nations"

    Adam Smith publishes "The Wealth of Nations"
    This is the first ever written book bout what makes up a nation's wealth, written by the Scottish philosopher Adam Smith. It's considered a masterpiece and it is now a basis of economy. It's gotten enough critical praise as well as room to debate and inspire many other critical thinkers to give their perspectives based on what Smith says.
    This is a small explication of what Adam ideas were:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ejJRhn53X2M
  • Invention of the power loom

    Invention of the power loom
    This is the first idea of an automatic loom, that significantly boosted industrialization as it greatly increases productivity. Edmund Cartwright started the first one, and it used water to speed up the weaving process.
  • Declaration of the Rights of the Man and the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of the Man and the Citizen
    This is a text that the National Assembly came up in order to set their rights and duties clear in a text so no corrupt government can arbitrarily violate them.
    http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/declaration.html
  • Estates - General meeting

    Estates - General meeting
    This is an assembly formed of all three states of society of France, and they're the only people that can decide changes in taxing. King Louis XVI convoked them to decide the taxing in order to get out of the terrible crisis the country was going through at the moment. This assembly is already a huge event as it hadn't been convoked in 175 years.
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    French Revolution

    This is one of the most relevant events in history, a revolution that took place in France when they couldn't stand the unfair system anymore, and that ended with the ruling of Napoleon Bonaparte. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8qRZcXIODNU This is a really simplified explanatory video that explains in a easy way to understand the first half of the French Revolution.
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    Contemporary History

    The fourth timespan in History that takes place between the start of the French Revolution (1789) and the present.
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    The National Assembly was formed there after the King Louis XVI expelled the Third Estate and anyone who had any ideas related to reform from the Estates - General assemblies. They were the true representatives of the country ad they were willing to create a constitution.
  • The storming of Bastille

    The storming of Bastille
    Many people in Paris supported the ideas that the National Assembly was proposing. They were ready to make a change, but the government wasn't ready for a reform, so the civilians decided that it was now or never, so they started a revolution. The needed weapons and gunpowder for that, so they massively attacked Bastille, which was supposed to be a prison protected by Governor's de Launay, whose head was taken along with all of the weapons and gunpowder they got.
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    Constitutional monarchy in France

    Autumn 1789, Louis XVI accepted the National Assemby out of fear. France became a constitutional monarchy.
    1791- first constitution:
    - Abolishes guilds, and allows the citizens to start businesses freely.
    - They receive a National Guard, which is an army formed of Third State people who defend the revolution
    -End the financial crisis by forcing the nobles and the clergy to pay taxes. This system ends after Louis XVI is found betraying their people and is arrested.
  • Women's March on Versailles

    Women's March on Versailles
    Thousands of women, angry because of the inaccessible prices that food was getting, marched to the King's palace with weapons, and forced the King to move to Paris, were he could be easily influenced by the people and it was easier for them to demand changes.
  • First French Constitution

    First French Constitution
    After 3 years of a constitutional monarchy, the National Assembly finally came up with a constitution. This gave citizens some rights, but were very moderate and of course women were excluded. This however wouldn't last long.
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    Social Republic

    This is the time during the French Revolution when a Social Republic, ruled by the Girondists in the first half and the Jacobins in the second half, was imposed, after imprisoning the royal family.
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    Girondin Convention

    This is the time during the Social Republic when it was ruled by the moderates bourgeoisie, but this only lasted until the radicals (Jacobins) took over their power, after taking the head of the king Louis XVI.
  • War of the First Coalition

    War of the First Coalition
    Prussia and the Holy Roman Empire oath to help Louis against revolutionaries, but after he was imprisoned and the Legislative Assembly had the power, they declared war to Prussia and Austria.
  • Storm of Tuileries Palace

    Storm of Tuileries Palace
    The people imprisoned the royal family and declared a Republic.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    This is the event that started the Jacobin Convection, because Robespierre though that having the King imprisoned was not enough, and so he killed him and his wife.
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    Jacobin Convention

    This is the time during which the Jacobins had all of the executive power in the French Social Republic. Their leader was Robespierre, he was at first just a radical believer of the revolution, but then everything got to his head and he started sending people to the guillotine if they showed the tiniest sign of being against the Revolution. This ended after they got tired of him and sent him and his 21 most relevant followers to the guillotine.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Terror

    This took place during Robespierre ruling times, when the Jacobin Convection had the executive power. He imposed the Law of suspects, which basically killed everyone who was under the tiniest suspicion of being against the Revolution.
  • Coup of 18th Brumaire

    Coup of 18th Brumaire
    Napoleon Bonaparte, a well-known general in the French army, who was known for being intelligent and a good strategist, decided that the Directory wasn't helping the country at all, and that it was about time for someone to take control and end all of that chaos. The absolutist monarchies were getting closer yet the government wasn't doing anything, so him and his supporter organized a coup and forced the Directory to give him their power.
    And the French Revolution ended.
  • Period: to

    Conservative Republic

    After a coup ended the dictatorial government of the Jacobin Convection, the moderate bourgeoisie took the executive power, but since they were on a war with two other countries and their invasions were getting closer and closer to Paris yet the government didn't do anything, the people were still unhappy, until another person took the full power and control.
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    The Consulate

    This is the time in which Napoleon Bonaparte was ruling France in a controlled stable way, even tho he was kind of a dictator, things were under control, some laws that could actually work were applied and the country was well organized.
    However, there was no freedom of opinion, and other oppressive factors, but these not even close to being as bad as the Ancien Regime.
  • Constitution of 1800

    Constitution of 1800
    This didn't have any separation of powers and people didn't have freedom of opinion.
    There was a reform in the finance sector, he established a commercial code and created the bank of France and other banknotes.
    There was a civil code for all citizens, a school that was meant to be public and accessed by everyone.
    Exiles were allowed to return and Napoleon made an agreement with the Church.
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    This is the event that marked the end of the Consulate, and Napoleon's first mistake, as this was contradicting what he stated during the Consulate.This event led him to his downfall.
    During the ceremony, he himself put the crown on his head instead of the Pope, sending some sort of message to the people that were there, as if he was trying to clarify that he gives the power to himself, and not God or any others.
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    The Napoleonic Empire

    He crowns himself as the emperor, which is the maximum position you could be in in a monarchy, even tho he clearly stated during the Consulate that there wouldn't be a monarchy in France.
    He conquered lots of places in Europe, and it went very well at first thanks to his strategies, but he made another mistake when he tried to defeat Russia in winter, since they know how to fight in the snow and he doesn't. Ever since, his downfall started, until he was sent to an island where he ended his life.
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned King

    Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned King
    After getting the French troops in thanks to Napoleon's strategy, Charles IV is forced to leave the throne to Joseph Bonaparte, making Spain part of the Napoleonic Empire.
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    Luddite movement

    It´s a movement that started between the proletariate, who were living tough conditions during the Industrial Revolution. They thought about who's fault was it that they were in that situation, and they came to the conclusion that machines were responsible for that, so they started destroying them as a sign of rebellion.
  • Congress of Viena and Holy Alliance Treaty

    Congress of Viena and Holy Alliance Treaty
    The Congress of Viena was formed by the dominant powers in Europe after the loss of France in order to put everything under control again, in other words, to impose the Ancient Régime again. It was organized by the Austrian Chancellor Metternich. This ended up with a Holy Alliance Treaty, which basically meant that they wouldn't fight anymore and they would unite their power to stop the liberal revolutions.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    This is Napoleon's last battle, in which he is basically destroyed by Britain, and is finally sent to Saint Helena island, where he spends a few years before he dies.
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    The Restoration of absolutism

    After France lost the war, the absolute monarchs of the winners of the war in Europe wanted to bring back the Ancient Régime.
    They imposed again the Ancient Régime laws and added another one: they now had the right to stop any liberal revolts in any of the countries.
    They remodeled the political map of Europe as well, but of course, after 25 years of liberalism, they wouldn't just change everything and get back to what they were. Now the damage has been done, and they would have to deal with it.
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    Greek War of Independence

    Greek was part of the Ottoman Empire for a long time, but they were excluded for state decisions, had to pay really high taxes and were ruled by people with different ideologies and religion.
    They declared their independence in 1822, but it wasn't recognized until they defeated the Turkish in 1827 tanks to the help of France and Britain, and in 1830 they were officially independent.
  • Abolishment of the Combination Acts

    This is a huge step for syndicalism, since the Combination Acts were laws that forbid trade unions or any type of worker's associations, and thanks to the strikes and pressure they put on the higher classes, they finally could associate legally.
  • Stephenson's steam locomotive

    Stephenson's steam locomotive
    This is the use of the steam engine basis to substitute the horses that used to carry wagons, as this is faster, cheaper and can carry a lot more than horses do, and can work for longer.
  • Revolutions of 1830

    Revolutions of 1830
    The Congress of Viena of course didn't respect people's rights, and those with liberalist and nationalist mindsets, which were a quite big percentage of the European population, were mad about it, and insurrections took place, some of which were successful and some others not.
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    The Age of revolutions

    Liberalists and nationalists were now really strong and they were a big percentage of the European population, and of course they were mad about the Restoration because they were now trying to reject and erase every progress that had been made during all those years of suffering and fighting.
    Insurrections spread all over Europe, some were successful, such as in France, who overthrew Charles X and put a constitutional monarch instead.
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    The Belgian Revolution

    In 1815, the Congress of Vienna united again what used to be Northern and Southern Netherlands, who were separated because thy didn't have anything to do withe each other anymore and were becoming to separate nations, and they were so, until 1815.
    They of course didn't like it, so a conflict started in 1830, and ended in 1839 with Belgium's declaration of independence (which was the southern Netherlands).
  • Zollverein

    The custom union created by Prussia to the Austrian nations that formed the Austrian Empire (what we know nowadays as Germany) and that was the first step to its complete union.
    Even tho they were technically unified, they still had to pay a lot to move from place to place, even tho those movements were completely necessary since some areas didn't have enough production. This made living there quite inaccesible and changes began to happen.
  • Grand National Consolidated Trades Union

    The people who formed part of the proletariate lived in terrible conditions, and those were to be regulated as soon as possible, and after the Combination Acts were abolished, the Grand National Trades Union brought together different types of workers to regulate child's labour, who had insane work for really low wages, defend the rights of association and improve wages.
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    German Unification process

    The German Confederation, where Prussia and Austria were fighting for power, was going through a process of custom unification done by Prussia, where people had to pay in order to move from a state to the other.(1834)
    In 1848, the first freely elected parliament offered the crown to Prussia but refused. Later(1861), Prussia would declare war to Denmark, Austria and France, winning all of them, proclaiming in 1871 the Second German Empire, Wilhelm I as Kaiser and Otto von Bismarck as chancellor.
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    French Second Republic

    This happened during the rise of liberalism and expansion of nationalism, in a period of time called the Spring of Nations.
    French people wanted a Republic again ,in which they adopted some democratic measures, such as universal male suffrage, press freedom, the abolition of the death penalty, as well as adding certain rights for workers.
  • Invention of the Bessemer converter

    Invention of the Bessemer converter
    This is a process in which impurities are removed from the iron using oxidation, with air being blown through the melted iron. The oxidation also raises the temperature of the metal, keeping it melted.
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    Italian Unification process

    The peninsula of Italy was divided into several regions, and Lombardy was annexed to Austria (of course, citizens were unhappy with that unification).
    In 1859, the Kingdom of Piedmont ,ruled by the liberal monarch Savoy, started a unification: they declared war to Austria and annexed Lombardy.
    Absolute monarchies were overthrown by an uprising popular movement led by Garibaldi.
    1861, Savoy became king of Italy, 1866 Austria left and 1870, the Papal States were annexed, making Rome the capital.
  • Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital

    Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital
    This book consists of a critique to the political economy, and it contrasts with other classical economists such as Adam Smith.
    He wanted to end social classes, but didn't think that the idealistic ways others came up with were possible, he wanted a scientifically done model based on human History, the way our behavior and past actions affect the present, and what could be done to abolish the oppressors and oppressed dynamic.
    It's based on the abolishment of capitalism and private property.