Test 3 Study Guide

  • John Locke

    He believed that everyone started with a blank page and could be affected throught the events and people around them.
  • Louis XIV

    He was the king of France and put on heavy taxation and controlled a absolute monarchy.
  • Isaac Newton

    English mathmatician and physicist who discovered the role of gravitation in the world we know today.
  • Britain's Domestic Stability

    Britain's Domestic Stability
    They believed in religious toleration, freedom of press, and a small army.
  • Voltaire

    Votaire criticized french life and believed that the French could improve their lives by modeling after the British.
  • Voltaire Famous slogan

    "Crush the Infamous Thing"
  • Print Culture

    Print Culture
    Spread the ideas of writers and the public became more educated and literate.
  • Deism

    They believed that religion and reason could be combined and that god must be rational.
  • Philosophes

    Philosophes
    The intellectuals of the 18th century enlightenment were people who would provide education for other thinker in those times.
  • Madame de Tencin

    Madame de Tencin
    She helped her husband rise to power and stay by conversing with her friends and spreading good word.
  • William Pitt

    William Pitt
    He agreed with many other leaders and would discourage popular uprisings.
  • Louis XV

    Louis XV
    Unable to solve taxation disputes with parlament.
  • Frederick II of Prussia

    Frederick II of Prussia
    Thought that reforms and innovations would increase his revenue.
  • John Jacques Rousseau

    John Jacques Rousseau
    His political philosophy influenced the French Revolution as well as the overall development of modern political era.
  • Denis Diderot

    Denis Diderot
    He was a leading publisher to the encyclopedia and put it together with over 100 writers.
  • Jean le Rond d' Amembert

    Jean le Rond d' Amembert
    Helped Denis Diderot publish and organize the Encyclopedia when the authors were finished.
  • Adam Smith

    Adam Smith
    Believed that economic liberty was the foundation for a successful economy.
  • Immanuel Kant

    Immanuel Kant
    German philosopher who is widely considered to be a central figure of modern philosophy and also believed in human experience.
  • The Encyclopedia

    The Encyclopedia
    It had two objectives to seclarize learning and to replace intellectual assumptions.
  • Catherine II of Russia

    Catherine II of Russia
    Longest female ruler of Russia and believed in the ideas of Joseph and Frederick.
  • Edmund Burke

    Edmund Burke
    Britsh statesman who condemmed the recolution for it's extreme measures.
  • Jacques Necker

    Jacques Necker
    Issued a report blaming the aristocratic government for France's finnancial troubles.
  • Charles Alexandre de Calonne

    Charles Alexandre de Calonne
    He proposed new taxes and organzed the assembly of notables and claimed they had no authority.
  • Cesare Beccaria

    Cesare Beccaria
    Attacked torture and captial punishment and wrote "On Crimes and Punishments".
  • Joseph II of Austria

    Joseph II of Austria
    Was a strong believer in future inventions to achieve maximum revenue.
  • Baron de Montesquieu

    Baron de Montesquieu
    Held British constitution as an example of the wisest model for regulating power.
  • Louis XVI

    Louis XVI
    Continued the legacy of his father and fought for more taxation with the parlament.
  • Louis XVIII

    Louis XVIII
    Maderates charter angers royalists who carried out attacks on Mapoleon's allies and he preffered to respond with repressive measures.
  • William Blake

    William Blake
    Was an English painter, poet and printmaker who was a big writer of poetry during the French Revolution.
  • Maximillian Robespierre

    Maximillian Robespierre
    Powerful member of the committee of safety and he established the cult of supreme being.
  • Jaques Danton

    Jaques Danton
    First president of the committee of public safety and was a leading figure in the early stages of the French Revolution.
  • Jean Jacques Rousseau

    Jean Jacques Rousseau
    Envised a society in which each individual could maitain personal freedom.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte

    Napoleon Bonaparte
    A french military and political leader that thrived during the French Revolution and conquered many lands.
  • Duke of Wellington

    Duke of Wellington
    Defeated Napoleon in battle of Waterloo.
  • William Wordsworth

    William Wordsworth
    Wordsworth was a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age
  • Lord Liver Pool

    Lord Liver Pool
    He was an English politician and both the youngest and longest-serving Prime Minister since 1806.
  • Samuel Taylor Coleridge

    Samuel Taylor Coleridge
    Was an English poet, literary critic and philosopher who, with his friend William Wordsworth, was a founder of the Romantic Movement in England
  • Three Estates

    Three Estates
    The first estate was the nobility, the second estate was the clergy, and the last estate was made up of wealthy members in the proffessional middle class.
  • Methodism

    Methodism
    John Wesley founded methodism in England based on the idea that helping the poor is the main goal.
  • Lord Byron

    Lord Byron
    He was an English poet and a leading figure in the Romantic movement.
  • Cahiers de Doleances

    Cahiers de Doleances
    List of grievances presented to the monarchy for equality amoung the king's subjects.
  • National Constituent Assembly

    National Constituent Assembly
    The third estate left after the assembly and gathered at a tennis court and to take an oath of loyalty.
  • Bastille

    Bastille
    800 people of the France area stormed the prison and released prisoners as a act of rebellion towards the government.
  • Great Fear

    Great Fear
    Peasants felt they were reclaiming what was rightfully theirs but it had been taken from them by the aristocracy.
  • Declaration of Rights of Man

    Declaration of Rights of Man
    Set forth by the national assembly, claimed that all men were born free and deserved equal rights.
  • Jacobins

    Jacobins
    They desired more radical reform and demanded the clergy who refused to take the oath to support the civil constitution to do so or lose state pensions.
  • Plebiscite

    Plebiscite
    The plebicite became popular after the french revolution and made Napoleon emperor of France.
  • Nationalism

    Nationalism
    They justified French expansionism and French military campaigns on the claim that France had the right to spread the enlightened ideals of the French Revolution across Europe.
  • Civil Constitution of the Clergy

    Civil Constitution of the Clergy
    The result of the reconstruction of the Roman Catholic Church into a branch of the secular state.
  • Paris Commune

    Paris Commune
    A small group that temporarily had a lot of power in France.
  • Mary Wollstronecraft

    Mary Wollstronecraft
    Adressed shortcoming and critiqued A vindication of the rights of woman.
  • Active Citizens

    Active Citizens
    Men paying taxes within three days were allowed to vote.
  • Girondists

    Girondists
    Ordered the imigrants to return from the border and for the clergy to take an oath or lose pensions but Louis XVI vetoed these laws.
  • September Massacre

    September Massacre
    The Paris Commune killed 1,200 people in jail.
  • Republic

    Republic
    The convention declared France a republic and Louis XVI was executed.
  • Liberal

    Liberal
    Anyone or anything that challenged their own political, social or religious values and were typically influenced by enlightenment writers.
  • Levee en masse

    Levee en masse
    Was a military conserition that forsaw all adult men into the army of France.
  • Departements

    Departements
    83 departements replaced ancient provinces.
  • The Commity of General Security

    The Commity of General Security
    Along with the committe of public safety they watched the reign of terror and tried to protect the new creations.
  • Committe of Public Safety

    Committe of Public Safety
    Worked with the committe of General security to carry out executive duties of the government.
  • Cult of Supreme Being

    Cult of Supreme Being
    Civic religion modeled after views of Rousseau and encouraged the execution of key republicans.
  • Metric System

    Metric System
    Artisan organizations set up this system and suppressed guilds.
  • Sans - culottes Revolutionaries

    Sans - culottes Revolutionaries
    They served as victims as persecutors to support the cause.
  • Constitution of the Year III

    Constitution of the Year III
    Provided a new legislature of two houses consisting of the upper body and lower council that had nearly 540 members.
  • Plebiscite

    The Plebiscite became popular after the french revolution and made Napoleon emperor.
  • The Consulate

    The Consulate
    Made a new constitution during the French Revolution that made Napoleon the top of the list.
  • The Consulate

    Made a new constitution during the French Revolution that made Napoleon the top of the list.
  • Romanticism

    Romanticism
    Was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century.
  • Concordat

    Concordat
    It solidified the Roman Catholic Church as the majority church of France and brought back most of its civil status.
  • Victor Hugo

    Victor Hugo
    He was a French poet, novelist, and dramatist of the Romantic movement.
  • Goethe Schlegal

    Goethe Schlegal
    With his older brother, August Wilhelm Schlegel, he was one of the main figures of the Jena romantics.
  • Napoleonic Code

    Napoleonic Code
    Codification of French Law and is established in all territories that French forces conquer.
  • Third Coalition

    Third Coalition
    Consisted of Austria, Germany, Russia, and Sweden who banned together to defeat France.
  • Confederation of Rhine

    Confederation of Rhine
    Confederation of client states that enabled the French to unify and dominate.
  • French Invasion of Russia

    French Invasion of Russia
    Russian armies fell against Napoleon as he invaded the Russian territory with great speed but the russian armies burned down their own towns so that Napoleon would have no resources for his army.
  • Austrian Prince Metternich

    Austrian Prince Metternich
    He believed that recognizing minority rights would destroy his empire.
  • Abdication and Ebla

    Abdication and Ebla
    Napoleon Bonaparte was exiled by the Allied governments to Elba following his abdication at Fontainebleau.
  • Congress of Vienna

    Congress of Vienna
    The early 19th century nationalists oppossed congress and didnt allow for individual representation of ethnic groups.
  • Charter

    Charter
    It was a constitution granted by King Louis XVIII of France shortly after his restoration. It granted more authority to the monarch than Louis XVIII.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    Napoleon and The Duke of Wellington fought in the territory of Britain and Napoleon was defeated.
  • Quadruple Alliance

    Quadruple Alliance
    Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia all came together against the French and Napoleon to finally put him down.
  • Burschenschaften

    Burschenschaften
    Student organization at the German universities that started as an expression of the new nationalism prevalent in post-Napoleonic Europe.
  • Coercion Act of March 1817

    Coercion Act of March 1817
    It was an act of Parliament that suspended Habeas Corpus and extended existing laws against seditious gatherings in Britain.
  • Supremacy of the Imagination

    Supremacy of the Imagination
    William Blake proclaimed the supremacy of the imagination over the rationalism and materialism of the 18th-century.
  • Conservatism

    Conservatism
    Was dominated by monarchies landed aristocracies and established churches.
  • Peterloo Massacre

    Peterloo Massacre
    Liberal crowd gathers in Machester Sain Peter's fiel. Militia moved in and killed 11 people.
  • Six Acts

    Six Acts
    They designed at intimidating agitators and limiting their free speech.
  • Concert of Europe

    Concert of Europe
    Informal meetings with European power after congress of vienna. In 1820 they began to fail.
  • Protocol of Troppau

    Protocol of Troppau
    Russia, Prussia have an agreement that stables government oppurtunity to intervene in coutries experiencing a revolution to restore order.
  • The conservative order shaken in Europe

    The conservative order shaken in Europe
    Sercret socities begin to form to try to unite the people against the government and some soldiers hear rumors of a corrupt government and begin to spread the word.
  • Decembrists Revolt

    Decembrists Revolt
    The russian army join Tsar Nicholas in the Moscow regiment. They fire artillery at the enemies and killed many of them.
  • Northern and Southern Society

    Northern and Southern Society
    They are formed to unite Russian protestars to focus on the issues at hand.
  • Movements of Independence

    Movements of Independence
    Many revolutions and revolts against nationalism proved that it was failing and that a new type of government needed to be established.
  • Primogeniture

    Primogeniture
    Charles X restored the rule to primogenitre and supported the Catholic church and gave special rights to decendants of enigres.
  • July Monarchy

    July Monarchy
    Parisians responded by staging massive protests against charles the tenth.
  • Frederick III of Prussia

    Frederick III of Prussia
    Reneged on his pledge to create constitutional government and resisted aspirations by German nationalists to dissolve order.