Spanish History - pre Civil War

By LEE0108
  • Catholic Church controls education.

    Religiously, the Catholic Church was given a stranglehold over education in the Concordat between Spain and Rome.
  • Army overstaffed and overpowerful.

    Militarily, the army was overstaffed and overpowerful after the loss of Cuba, the last remnant of the Spanish Empire
  • Army fired on protestors.

    Army fired on protestors.
    Socially, problems of poverty for the peasantry and the proletariat had led to bloodshed in 'Tragic Week', when the army fired on protestors.
  • Spain had an inefficient and corrupt government.

    Spain was a constitutional monarchy headed by King Alfonso XIII. Politically, Spain had an inefficient and corrupt government. Regionally, Catalnia and the Basque region wanted independence.
  • Spanish army massacred in Morocco.

    A Spanish army was massacred in Morocco when it tried putting down a rebellion. This defeat was a further blow to Spanish pride.
  • Period: to

    General Primo de Rivera controlled Spain.

    General Primo de Rivera took control of Spain in a bloodless coup to prevent the collapse of the monarchy.
  • Period: to

    Rivera ended the war in Morocco and introduced public work schemes.

    Rivera ended the war in Morocco and introduced public work schemes - roads, railways, irrigation schemes. Industrial production increased by threefold. Rivera suspended the Cortes (Parliment) trial by jury and freedom of speech/press.
  • Period: to

    Depression hit Spain.

    The Depression hit Spain hard. Agricultural prices plummeted and Industrial production collapsed by up to 50%. Unemployment skyrocketed.
  • Rivera resigned as government leader.

    The army withdrew its support and Rivera had to resign as government leader.
  • King Alfonso XIII

    King Alfonso XIII was abdicated
  • Period: to

    Regions, Church, Army and Economy.

    Regions: Catalonia recieved some self-government.
    The Church: Jesuits expelled. Religious Education in schools banned; divorce allowed.
    The Army: Many army officers were made to retire early on half pay. T
    he Economy: Huge estates in Spain were nationalised.
  • Period: to

    Fascist Party Formed

    The reforms the Republican government had put in place angered the military, industrialists, landowners and the Catholic Church (the most power element of society). These four powerful bodies looked towards the Fascists for help against their Left-Wing government, and a new Spanish Fascist party was formed, under Primo's son, Jose Antonia de Rivera. Left Wing government ruled Spain.
    Azana was the most important person in the government.
  • Republicans won the election.

    Elections were held and Republicans won all the major cities in Spain. Alfonso abdicated to avoid civil war. Spain became a Republic.
  • Government was split

    The government was split between Left and Right Wing Republicans - the former wanted rapid social reform to appeal the working classes; the latter wanted more moderate change to reduce the opposition of the church, landowners and military.
  • Unsucessful military Coup

    General Sanjuro led an army coup to overthrow the government lead by Manuel Azana (the prime minister). The military coup was unsuccessful as the army remained loyal to the government as it had won the elections fairly.
  • Left organised strikes and riots

    Left organised strikes and riots
    Organised Strikes and Riots in an effeort to destabilise the government.
    25 people were killed by government troops.
    Goverment lose a great deal of supporters from the working class and socialists.
  • Azana resigns as prime minister

    Azana resigns as priminister and elections were called.
    CEDA won and formed a government led by Gil Robles.
    Robles withdrew all reforms from the Azana government.
    Left-Wing parties joined together and organised strikes, riots and vandalism.
  • Spain heading into Chaos

    General Franco's army put down strikes started by coal miners.
    Catalans turned against the government when they took away their privileges withdrawn.
    Spain was heading towards chaos,
  • General Election

    General Election
    An election was called to restore order.
    The Left-Wing coalition won and Azana became prime minister again.
    Right-Wing formed a coalition in reaction.
    Public disturbances started spiralling the coutry out of control.
  • A leading right wing politician was murdered.

    Leading right win politician, Sotelo, was murdered.
    The right wing politicians argued they were in serious danger of a communist takeover.
    Began to favour the idea of military dictatorship.
  • General Franco assumed control of the military

    General Franco assumed control of the military and crossed over into spain to take over the government.
    The Spanish Civil War had begun.