Spain in XVIII & XIX centuries

By rafaxyx
  • Period: Sep 7, 1553 to

    Isabella I

    Elizabeth I was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana or Good Queen Bess, the childless Elizabeth was the last monarch of the Tudor dynasty. In 1558, Elizabeth succeeded her half-sister to the throne and set out to rule by good counsel. One of her first actions as queen was the establishment of an English Protestant church, of which she became the Supreme Governor.
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    Charles II

    Charles II of Spain was the last Habsburg ruler of Spain. His realm included Southern Netherlands and Spain's overseas empire, stretching from the Americas to the Spanish East Indies. Known as "the Bewitched" he is noted for his extensive physical, intellectual, and emotional disabilities and his consequent ineffectual rule.
    He died in 1700, childless and heirless.
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    Joseph I

    Joseph I was Holy Roman Emperor from 1705 until his death in 1711. He was the eldest son of Emperor Leopold I from his third wife, Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg. Joseph was crowned King of Hungary at the age of nine in 1687, and King in Germany at the age of eleven in 1690. He succeeded to the imperial throne and that of Bohemia when his father died. Joseph continued the War of the Spanish Succession, begun by his father, against Louis XIV of France, in
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    War of Spanish Succession

    The War of the Spanish Succession (1702–1715) was a major European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death in 1700 of the last Habsburg King of Spain, the infirm and childless Charles II. Attempts to solve the problem by partitioning the empire between the eligible candidates from the royal houses of France (Bourbon), Austria (Habsburg)
  • New Foundation Decrees (valencia and aragon)

    New Foundation Decrees  (valencia and aragon)
    The Nueva Planta decrees were a number of decrees signed in 1707 in valencia and aragon by Philip V—the first Bourbon King of Spain—during and shortly after the end of the War of the Spanish Succession by the Treaty of Utrecht. Philip V suppressed the institutions, privileges, and the ancient charters
  • Treaty of utretch

    Treaty of utretch
    The Treaty of Utrecht that established the Peace of Utrecht, comprised a series of individual peace treaties signed in the Dutch city of Utrecht in April 1713. Concluded between various European states, it helped end the War of the Spanish Succession. The treaty enforced the Partition Treaties of (1697) and (1700) which stated that the Spanish and French Crowns should never be united.
  • New Foundation decrees (Catalognia)

    New Foundation decrees (Catalognia)
    This New Foundation decrees were put into force in the year 1716 in catalognia to stop using their own laws (fueros) and start using the centralized way of governing of Felipe V.
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    José Moñino y Redondo was a Spanish statesman. He was the reformist chief minister of King Charles III of Spain, and also served briefly under Charles IV. He was arguably Spain's most effective statesman in the eighteenth century. In Spain, he is simply known as Conde de Floridablanca.
  • The first Pacte de Famille

    The first Pacte de Famille
    The first of these was made on November 7, 1733 by King Philip V of Spain and King Louis XV of France in the Treaty of the Escorial. Philip V had become the first Bourbon King of Spain in 1700 upon the extinction of Spanish Habsburgs with the condition that the thrones of Spain and France never be united.
  • The second Pacte de Famille

    The second Pacte de Famille
    The second Family Compact was made on October 25, 1743 again by King Philip V of Spain and King Louis XV of France in the Treaty of Fontainebleau.This pact was signed in the middle of the War of Austrian Succession, and most of its clauses had to do with the conduct of the war. The result was the expansion of Spanish influence in Italy when Philip V's fourth son Philip, became in 1748 Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla.
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    Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos was a Spanish neoclassical statesman, author, philosopher and a major figure of the Age of Enlightenment in Spain. ovellanos's prose works, especially those on political and legislative economy, constitute his real claim to literary fame. In them, depth of thought and clear-sighted sagacity are couched in a certain Ciceronian elegance and classical purity of style.
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    Charles III

    Charles III was the King of Spain and the Spanish Indies from 1759 to 1788. While he was the fifth son of Philip V of Spain, he was the eldest son of Philip's second wife, Elisabeth Farnese. In 1734, as Duke of Parma, he conquered the kingdoms of Naples and of Sicily, and was crowned king on 3 July 1735, reigning as Charles VII of Naples and Charles V of Sicily until 1759. In 1738 he married Princess Maria Amalia of Saxony,
  • The third Pacte de Famille

    The third Pacte de Famille
    The third Family Compact was made on 15 August 1761 by King Charles III of Spain and Louis XV in the Treaty of Paris. Charles III was the son of Philip V, making him Louis's first cousin. At this time France was fighting the Seven Years' War against Great Britain. Charles's alliance reversed the policy of his predecessor, Ferdinand VI, who wished to keep Spain out of the war. When Spain became involved, the British occupied the Philippines and Cuba. but ceded Florida to the British.
  • Jesuists are expelled from Spain

    Jesuists are expelled from Spain
    A riot sparked the expulsion of the Jesuits from Spain. . The Jesuits were falsely accused by Crown Attorney Campomanes of plotting to overthrow the King. As the Jesuits opposed regal absolutism, Charles III believed the accusation, decreeing their expulsion from Spain. This decree was executed in April 1767. A
  • Esquilache Riots

    Esquilache Riots
    From 1760 to 1766 a series of bad harvests frustrated Leopoldo’s attempted reforms of the Laws governing agriculture, and the result was unrest and rioting in several major cities. One of these took place in Madrid, and was called ‘The Esquilache Riot’ . When the riot was quelled he was sacked. When the rioting started again there was no Esquilache to blame so all the Jesuits in the city were expelled. This did not work either.Leopoldo returned to Naples where he was probably safer
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    Fernando VII

    Ferdinand VII was twice King of Spain: in 1808 and again from 1813 to his death. He was known to his supporters as "the Desired" and to his detractors as the "Felon King" . He reestablished the absolutist monarchy and rejected the liberal constitution of 1812. Under his rule, Spain lost nearly all of its American possessions, and the country entered into civil war on his death.
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    Charles IV

    Charles IV was King of Spain from 14 December 1788, until his abdication on 19 March 1808. He was forced to abdicate by Napoleon in the abdications of abyonne
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    In August 1792, the royal couple was arrested by the sans-cullottes and imprisoned, and in September the monarchy was abolished by the National Convention . In November, evidence of Louis XVI’s counterrevolutionary intrigues with Austria and other foreign nations was discovered, and he was put on trial for treason by the National Convention.The next January, Louis was convicted and condemned to death by a narrow majority. On January 21, he walked to the guillotine and was executed.
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    War of the Pyrenees

    The War of the Pyrenees,was the Pyrenean front of the First Coalition's war against the First French Republic. It pitted Revolutionary France against the kingdoms of Spain and Portugal from March 1793 to July 1795 during the French Revolutionary Wars. The French began to win in 1794. By 1795, the French army controlled a portion of northeast Spain.
  • Treaty of San Ildefonso

    Treaty of San Ildefonso
    By the Treaty of San Ildefonso (not to be confused with the earlier Treaty of San Ildefonso of 19 August 1796 which formed an alliance between France and Spain against the British) and the Treaty of Madrid, 21 March 1801, Spain returned to France the territory of Louisiana which France had ceded to Spain in 1763. Spain was compensated by the creation in Tuscany of the kingdom of Etruria, which was given to the duke of Parma, son-in-law of Charles IV of Spain.
  • Napoleon is crown as emperor

    Napoleon is crown as emperor
    By 1799, France was at war with most of Europe, and Napoleon returned home from his Egyptian campaign to take over the reigns of the French government and save his nation from collapse. After becoming first consul in February 1800, he reorganized his armies and defeated Austria. In 1802, he established the Napoleonic Code, a new system of French law, and in 1804 he established the French empire.
  • Battle of Trafalgar

    Battle of Trafalgar
    British fleet under Admiral Nelson defeats a combined French and Spanish fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar, fought off the coast of Spain.Nelson and the Royal Navy consistently thwarted Napoleon Bonaparte, who led France to preeminence on the European mainland. Nelson’s last and greatest victory against the French was the Battle of Trafalgar, which began after Nelson caught sight of a Franco-Spanish force.Victory at the Battle of Trafalgar ensured that Napoleon would never invade Britain.
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau (1807)

    Treaty of Fontainebleau (1807)
    Treaty of Fontainebleau a secret agreement between Spain and France regarding the partition of Portugal. In the Treaty of Fontainebleau, Charles IV and Napoleon I outlined a proposed conquest and partition of Portugal by Spain and France as part of Napoleon's ongoing attempt to isolate England.The Treaty of Fontainebleau ultimately led to the Napoleonic occupation of Spain, the capture of Charles IV, and the designation of Napoleon's brother Joseph Bonaparte as ruler of Spain.
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    The Abdications of Bayonne is the name given to a series of forced abdications of the Kings of Spain that led to the Guerra de la Independencia Española Napoleon, which forced King Charles IV to abdicate the throne to his son Ferdinand VII in 1808 by order of the Spanish Royal Council. Napoleon's designation of his brother, Joseph, as King of Spain was resisted by the Spanish people and led to the Peninsular War.
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    Peninsular War

    The Peninsular War was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire and the allied powers of Spain, Britain and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. The war started when French and Spanish armies invaded and occupied Portugal in 1807, and escalated in 1808 when France turned on Spain, its ally until then. The war on the peninsula lasted until the Sixth Coalition defeated Napoleon in 1814.
  • First Spanish Constitution

    First Spanish Constitution
    On 19 March 1812, Spain’s first constitution was drawn up in Cadiz, enshrining the rights of Spanish citizens and limiting the power of the monarchy. Although it was not enacted for some years, its influence was considerable, both within peninsular Spain and its territories around the world.
  • Riego's Pronunciamiento

    Riego's Pronunciamiento
    Rafael de Riego was a military leader that was a prisioner in France and there he learn about the way of thinking of the French Revolution so in the 1 of june of 1820 he made a "pronunciamiento" to the king Fernando VII and he promoted the last Spanish constituion La Pepa with this pronunciamiento he put down the absolutist government of Fernando VII
  • Cien mil Hijos de San Luis

    Cien mil Hijos de San Luis
    The Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis was the popular name for a French army mobilized in 1823 by the Bourbon King of France, Louis XVIII to help the Spanish Royalists restore King Ferdinand VII of Spain to the absolute power of which he had been deprived during the Liberal Triennium. Despite the name, the actual number of troops was around 60,000.The force comprised some five army corps and was led by the Duke of Angoulême, the son of the future King Charles X of France.
  • Pragmatic sanction

    Pragmatic sanction
    When Philip V, from the French Bourbon acceded to the Spanish throne in the Spanish War of Succession, he brought with him the Salic Law, which restricted succession to the throne to the direct male line. However, King Ferdinand VII of Spain had fathered only two daughters, Isabella and Luisa Ferdinand of Bourbon. Charles IV of Spain made a weak attempt to eliminate the Salic Law, and Ferdinand brought forth the Pragmatic Sanction of 1830
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    Carlist Wars (explanation)

    The Carlist Wars were a series of civil wars that took place in Spain during the 19th century. The contenders fought to establish their claim to the throne, although some political differences also existed. Indeed, several times during the period from 1833 to 1876 the Carlists rallied to the cry of "God, Country, and King" and fought for the cause of Spanish tradition against liberalism, and later the republicanism, of the Spanish governments of the day.
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    Three Carlists Wars (1)

    The First Carlist War lasted more than seven years and the fighting spanned most of the country at one time or another, although the main conflict centered on the Carlist homelands of the Basque Country and Aragon, Catalonia and Valencia.
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    Three Carlists Wars (II)

    The Second Carlist War was a minor Catalan uprising. The rebels tried to install Carlos VI on the throne. In Galicia, the uprising was on a smaller scale and was put down by General Ramón María Narváez.
  • Canal de Castilla

    Canal de Castilla
    The canal was planned by the Marques de la Ensenada during Fernando VI's reign. Its purpose was to boost trade by allowing Tierra de Campos' wheat grain production to be transported from Castile to the northern harbour of Santander and to other markets from there; vice versa, the canal was also meant to facilitate the inflow of products from the Spanish colonies into Castile.
  • Spanish Glorious Revolution

    Spanish Glorious Revolution
    Isabella was in France to sign an alliance with Emperor Napoleon III when Admiral Juan Bautista Topete issued a revolutionary proclamation at Cadiz, Spain, on September 18, 1868. Quickly uprisings occurred in Madrid and other cities; the queen returned, and exiled liberal generals reentered the country. While Spain boiled in disorder, a provisional government was established that did away with reactionary laws, and ensured universal suffrage and freedom of the press.
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    Amadeus of Savoy

    Amadeo I was the only King of Spain from the House of Savoy.
    He was elected by the Cortes as Spain's monarch in 1870, following the deposition of Isabella II, and sworn in the following year. Amadeo's reign was fraught with growing republicanism, Carlist rebellions in the north, and the Cuban independence movement. He abdicated and returned to Italy in 1873, and the First Spanish Republic was declared as a result.
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    Three Carlists Wars (III)

    The Third Carlist War began in the aftermath of the deposition of one ruling monarch and abdication of another. Queen Isabella II was overthrown by a conspiracy of liberal generals in 1868. The Cortes replaced her with Amadeo, the Duke of Aosta. Then, when the Spanish elections of 1872 resulted in government violence against Carlist candidates and a swing away from Carlism, the Carlist pretender, Carlos VII, decided that only force of arms could win him the throne. The Third Carlist War began.
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    First Spanish Republic

    The First Spanish Republic was the short-lived political regime that existed in Spain between the parliamentary proclamation on 11 February 1873 and 29 December 1874 when General Arsenio Martínez-Campos's pronunciamento marked the beginning of the Bourbon Restoration in Spain. The Republic's founding started with the abdication as King on 10 February 1873 of Amadeo I, following the Hidalgo Affair, when he had been required by the radical government to sign a decree against the artillery officers
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    Cuban War

    The Spanish–American War was a conflict fought between Spain and the United States in 1898. Hostilities began in the aftermath of the internal explosion of the USS Maine in Havana harbor in Cuba leading to United States intervention in the Cuban War of Independence. American acquisition of Spain's Pacific possessions led to its involvement in the Philippine Revolution and ultimately in the Philippine–American War.