350px el tres de mayo  by francisco de goya  from prado thin black margin

Spain during the 18th and 19th century

  • Charles II

    Charles II
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    Charles II

    Charles II the Mad which was the king of Spain from 1665-1700 and the last monarch of the Spanish Habsburg dinasty. The years of Charle`s reign were very difficult for Spain the economy was stagnant, there was hunger in the land, and the power of the monarchy was extremly weak.Charles unfitness for rules meant he was often ignored, and power during his reign became the subject of court intrigues and foreign influence, particularly French and Austrian.
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    War of Spanish succesion

    Conflict that arose out of the disputed succesion to the throne of Spain following the death of the King Charles II, the last of the Spanish Habsburgs In an effort to regulate the impeding succesion, to which there were three principant claimants, England, the Dutch Republic, and France had in October 1698 signed the first Treaty of Partition, agreeing that on the death of Charles II, Prince Joseph Ferdinand, should inherit Spain, the Spanish Netherlands, and the Spanish colonies
  • New Foundation Decrees

    A number of decrees signed between 1707 and 1716 by king Philip V. With this decrees, all the territories in the Crown of Aragon had to be ruled by the laws of Castilla, so they lost their own privileges, institutions, and the ancient Fueros.
  • Salic Law

    This law dictates women could not inherit the throne unless there were no direct relatives which were men. On Novemver the 5th, the Spanish cortes made the Order of Succession, in which this law was restablished, later in 1830 just before Ferdinand VII's death, it was abolished by a Pragmatic Sanction.
  • Treaty of Utrecht

    Treaty of Utrecht
    It was a series of peace treaties signed in the Dutch city of Utrecht between the 1713 and the 1715 to finish with the War of Spanish Succession.
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    Count of Floridablanca

    Floridablanca was named prime minister in 1777. He embarked on a thorough reform of the Spanish bureaucracy, stablishing a true cabinet in 1787. He stablished commercial freedom in the American colonies in 1778, founded the National Bank of San Carlos in 1782.
  • First Family Compact

    It was an alliance made by Philip V of Spain and Louis XV of France, by this alliance Philip gained the kingdoms of Naples for his third son Charles III.
  • Second Family Compact

    Second Family Compact
    This pact was signed by Philip V and Louis XV in the middle of the War of Austrian Succession. The result was the expansion of Spanish influence in Italy when Philip V's fourth son Philip, became in 1748 Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla.
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    Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos

    A political ans spanish writer trasladated to Sevilla in order to perform the position of "Mayor of Crime". In 1797, after a brief period as embassador in Russia, he was appointed secretary of Grace and Justice, but could only hold office for a year due to the pressure exerted by Godoy to bring his dismissal. During this brief period he stood out for his reformist will and for his struggle against the Inquisition and the properties of the Church.
  • Canal of Castile

    Canal of Castile
    this canal's construction took from 1753 to 1849, it runs 207 km through the provinces of Burgos, Palencia and Valladolid, in the Autonomous Community of Castile and León, it was built to boost Spains trade making trade between Castile and the Spanish Colonies easier.
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    Charles III

    Charles relied on his own judgement more than did previous Spanish Kings, who had relied on powerfull ministers. Foreign policy was the greatest priority of his government because of his mother`s influenced, but above all because Spain was a world colonial power. Charles appointed pragmatic ministers whose missions were to reinforce the crown, improve the economy and maintain a peaceful social order to achieve a strong and stable country form which they would obtain political strenght and wealth
  • Third Family Compact

    Third Family Compact
    The last Family Compact, made by Louis XV and Charles II, son of Philip V, the treaty was done during the 7 years war, so Spain got involved, during this war, Cuba and The Philippines were occupied by Britain, Spain recovered them on the Treaty of Paris, in 1763, but Florida was given to the British. After winning the war, Britain recognized United States' independence.
  • Jesuits' exile

    Jesuits' exile
    In late june 1763, Jesuits were expelled from Mexico and Spain, they were took by the soldiers to the decks of Spanish warships and, this ships took them to Italy.
  • Esquilache Riots

    Esquilache Riots
    The Esquilache Riots occurred during the rule of Charles III of Spain. Caused mostly by the growing discontent in Madrid about the rising costs of bread and other staples, they were sparked off by a series of measures regarding Spaniards' apparel that had been enacted by Leopoldo de Gregorio, Marquis of Esquilache, a Neapolitan minister whom Charles favored.
  • Treaty of San Ildefonso

    Treaty of San Ildefonso
    There were three treaties signed at the royal residence of Ildefonso, Spain.
    The first one was signed by Spain and Portugal on 1 October 1777.The agreement mainly settled territorial disputes in the Río de la Plata region. With this treaty, Spain and France allied against Britain.
    The Second treaty was signed by Spain and France on 19 August 1796.
    And the third, and last one, was signed on 1 October 1800 between France and Spain. With this treaty Spain lost Luisiana to France.
  • Charles IV

    Charles IV
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    Charles IV 2

    The later treaty created an alliance with between Spain and France against England, but 10 years later, in 1807, Napoleon Bonaparte would again take French troops into northern Spain.
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    Charles IV

    Charle`s enduring luck of leadership led him to entrust his affairs to a shadow government run by Godoy, and by 1792, Godoy was fully in charge. Charles lived in fear of the French Revolution, and his government, under Godoy, sided with the First Coallition against Revolutionary France. This marked Sapin`s entrance into the French Revolution 1793 and led to a French invasion of Sapin in 1794 which was ended the following July by the Peace of Basle and later the Treatry of San Ildefonso.
  • Louis XVI's execution

    Louis XVI's execution
    On 21 January 1793 king Louis XVI was beheded by guillotine on the Place de la Révolution. Before being beheded he gave a speech in which he pardoned the people whic were going to kill him and declared himself innocent. It is said that he wasn't killed by the first hit of the blade, and a pain scream filled the whole Place de la Révolution.
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    War of the Pyrenees

    In 1793, a Spanish army invaded Roussillon in the eastern Pyrenees and maintained itself on French soil through April 1794. After february 1795, the war in the eastern Pyrenees became a stalement. In the western Pyrenees, the French began to win in 1794. By 1795, the French army controlled a portion of northeast Spain. The war was brutal at laest in two ways. First, the Committe of Pulic Safety declared that all French royalist prisoners should be executed.
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    War of Pyrenees 2

    And Secondly, French generals who lost battles or otherwise displeased the all-powerfull representatives on mission were sent to prison or the guillotine with alarming frequency. Army of the eastern Pyrenees commanders and generals were specially unlucky in this regard.
  • Napoleon is crown as emperor

    Napoleon is crown as emperor
    Pope Pius VII crowned Napoleon Bonaparte in Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris
  • Battle of Trafalgar

    Battle of Trafalgar
    Last and greatest battle in the sea against French from Lord Nelson
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    Is the name given to a series of forced abdications of the Kings of Spain that lead to the Peninsular War
  • Joseph I

    Joseph I
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    Joseph I

    His elder brother Napoleon made him king of Spain. Napoleon first sent some troops to Spain with the pretext that they were going to Portugal, but they stood on Spain and then captured Madrid, this led to some events such as ''La noche de los gatos'' or ''Los fusilamientos del 2 de mato''.
    He was called ''Pepe Botella'' becouse he was alcoholic, and his followers were called ''afrancesados''.
    He ended with the Spanish Inquisition.
  • Ferdinand XVII

    Ferdinand XVII
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    Ferdinand VII's 1st Reign

    He was known to his supporters as "the Desired" and to his detractors as the "Felon King". After being overthrown by Napoleon in 1808 he linked his monarchy to counter-revolution and reactionary policies that produced a deep rift in Spain between his forces on the right and liberals on the left. Spain entered into civil war on his death. It's known as the worst Spanish monarch. Cowardly, selfish, grasping, suspicious and vengeful, he seemed almost incapable of any perception of the commonwealth.
  • Peninsular War

    Peninsular War
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    Peninsular War

    It was a military conflict between Napoleon`s empire and the allied powers of Spain, Britain and Portugal for the control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. The war started when French and Spanish armies invaded and occupied Potugal in 1807, and scalated 1808 when France turned Spain, its ally until then. The war in the Peninsula lasted until the Sixth Coallition defeated Napoleon in 1814, and is regarded as one of the first wars of national liberation.
  • First Spanish Constitution

    First Spanish Constitution
    A constitution made by The Cortes, in Cadiz, name as La Pepa with the following principles: Constitutional monarchy, national sovereignty, universal male suffrage, separation of powers and right to privacy, freedom of the press and prohibition of torture
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    Ferdinand XVII's 2nd Reign

    He was known to his supporters as "the Desired" and to his detractors as the "Felon King". After being overthrown by Napoleon in 1808 he linked his monarchy to counter-revolution and reactionary policies that produced a deep rift in Spain between his forces on the right and liberals on the left. Spain entered into civil war on his death. It's known as the worst Spanish monarch. Cowardly, selfish, grasping, suspicious and vengeful, he seemed almost incapable of any perception of the commonwealth.
  • Riego`s pronunciamiento

    Riego`s pronunciamiento
    It was a military coupe d`tat done by Rafael de Riego a Spanish commander in Sevilla, Cabezas de San Juan
  • The houndred thousands sons of Saint Luis

    It was the popular name for a French army by Louis XVIII, bourbon king of France, to help the Spanish Royalist restore king Ferdinand VIIof Spain to the absolute power
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    Isabella II of Spain

    In 1833 she was crowned, but it was her mother, María Cristina, who ruled until she was old enough to rule, in 1840. She was suported by the liberal side in the first Carlist war. She married with his cousin Francisco de Asís, also called ''Paquita''.
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    First Carlist War

    Lasted more than seven years and the fighting spanned most of the country at one time or another, although the main conflict centered on the Carlist homelands of the Basque Country and Aragon, Catalonia and Valencia.
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    Second Carlist War

    Was a minor Catalan uprising. The rebels tried to install Carlos VI on the throne. In Galicia, the uprising was on a smaller scale and was put down by General Ramón María Narváez.
  • Spanish glorious revolution

    Spanish glorious revolution
  • Amadeus of Savoy

    Amadeus of Savoy
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    Amadeus of Savoy

    Was the only King of Spain from the House of Savoy. He was the second son of King Vittorio Emanuele II of Italy and was known for most of his life as the Duke of Aosta, but reigned briefly as King of Spain from 1873 to 1874.
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    Third Carlist War

    Began in the aftermath of the deposition of one monarch and abdication of another. Queen Isabella II was overthrown by a conspiracy of liberal generals in 1868, and left Spain in some disgrace.The Cortes replaced her with Amadeo, Duke of Aosta. Then, when the Spanish elections of 1872 resulted in government violence against Carlist candidates and a swing away from Carlism, the Carlist pretender, Carlos VII, decided that only force of weapons could win him the throne. The Third Carlist War began.
  • First Republic

    First Republic
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    First Republic

    The First Spanish Republic was the political regime in Spain since its proclamation by the courts, the February 11, 1873, until December 29, 1874, when the pronouncement of General Martinez-Campos began the Bourbon Restoration in Spain. The first Republican attempt in Spain was a short experience, characterized by political. In its first eleven months four presidents of the executive branch were followed, all from the same Federal Republican Party, until the coup d'etat of General Pavia.
  • Cuban War of independence

    Cuban War of independence
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    Cuban war

    Was the last of three liberation wars that Cuba fought against Spain. The final three months of the conflict escalated to become the Spanish–American War, with United States forces being deployed in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippine Islands against Spain.