Silvia Rodríguez Ardao_G&H_4ºE

Timeline created by silviaardao
In History
  • Period: Oct 12, 1492 to

    Modern History

    The Modern History is one of the Universal History's periods, situated between the Middle Ages and the Contemporary History. It's discussed by historians if its beggining is marked by the fall of Constantinople in 1453 or by the discovery of America in 1492, but there's an agreement about its ending: the French Revolution in 1789. During Modern History, theocentricism is be replaced by anthropocentrism, and this situation makes visible changes in culture, society, politics and economy.
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    Enclosure Acts

    During the second half of the C.18th the agricultural production increased due to changes. One of them was the new land ownership structure. The British Parliament authorised the Enclosure Acts due to the rise in prices. Enclosed properties substitued the open field system. This had positive consequences: concentration of land ownership, improvement in techniques and market selling. However, it also had negative ones, as poor farmers that couldn’t enclose land had to sell their property.
  • John Kay's flying shuttle

    John Kay's flying shuttle
    The mechanisation process of the textile industry started with John Kay's flying shuttle, which increased the speed of production and made it possible to weave wider fabrics.
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    First Industrial Revolution

    The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain in the c.18th and spread across Europe and North America over the next 100 years. The new industry, based on the mechanisation of production, technical innovations and new ways of working, caused strong growth in production. Industrialisation introduced capitalism as an economic system and transformed society. Cities grew and two new social classes made up the backbone of society: the bourgeoisie and the proletariat.
  • James Watt's steam engine

    James Watt's steam engine
    James Watt would patent in 1769 the "Method for reducing the consumption of steam and fuel in machines of heat". Steam engines use the power from steam to generate continuous movement, which is transferred to lift coal out of mines, drive great hammers in the iron industry, power spinning and weaving machines such as the Flying Shuttle and power transport, among many other applications. It was a key point of the revolution. This is how it worked:
  • Adam Smith publishes "The Wealth of Nations"

    Adam Smith publishes "The Wealth of Nations"
    "An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations", better known as "The Wealth of Nations", is the work of the Scottish economist Adam Smith published in 1776. It is a work of political economy in the emergence of the Industrial Revolution, and is widely considered the first work in the field of economics. The work is also a reasoned defense of free market policies. It was written for middle-educated people in the eighteenth century rather than for specialists and mathematicians.
  • Invention of the power loom

    Invention of the power loom
    Edmund Cartwright's power loom increased fabric production and lowered its cost during the mechanisation process of the textile industry.
  • Estates-General meeting

    Estates-General meeting
    The Estates-General met in Versailles in May 1789 to approve tax reform. The meeting had been summoned by Louis XVI (because of the social and economical crisis) and was composed of representatives of the three estates (watch image). The first two groups wanted to vote per estate, but the Third Estate wanted to vote per representative. The denial of the privileged made them finally leave the meeting.
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    Contemporary History

    The Contemporary History is the name used to designate the historical period between the French Revolution and today. The events of this time have been marked by in the economy, society and technology that have earned the name of Industrial Revolution. Even more spectacular were the political and ideological transformations as well as the mutations of the world political map and the greatest wars known to humanity.
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    French Revolution

    It was a social and political conflict with periods of violence, that convulsed France and other nations of Europe that faced supporters and opponents of the Ancien Régime. The spread of Enlightenment ideas and the American Revolution, the discontent of the Third Estate and the economical and financial crisis were the factors for change. It began with the self-proclamation of the Third Estate as the National Assembly in 1789 and ended with Napoleon's coup in 1799.
  • Tennis Court Oath (Proclamation of the National Assembly)

    Tennis Court Oath (Proclamation of the National Assembly)
    After leaving the Estates-General, the representatives of Third Estate met in the Real Tennis Room in Versailles (Jeu de Paume) and proclaimed themselves the National Assembly. They vowed "not to separate and to reassemble wherever require, until the Constitution of the kingdom is established".
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    During the end of June and first weeks of July, the Assembly’s proposals joined more and more supporters in Paris and the situation got more and more tense. The 14th of July 1789, the Third Estate stormed the Bastille (a castle used as a state prison by the kings of France). The prison contained only seven inmates at the time of its storming but was seen by the revolutionaries as a symbol of the monarchy's abuse of power; its fall was the flashpoint of the French Revolution.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    Set by the National Constituent Assembly, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen abolished feudalism and recognised rights, individual freedoms and equality of all citizens in law and taxation. The content of the document emerged largely from the ideals of the Enlightenment and the structure of the American Declaration of Independence. It was the first step toward a constitution.
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    Constitutional monarchy

    It was the first phase of the Revolution. It was driven by the National Constituent Assembly formed by moderate bourgeoisie. Its goals were to abolish Ancien Régime and to establish a moderate liberal monarchy. Once the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen and Constitution were approved, a Legislative Assembly was formed to draft new laws to implement liberalism. This phase ended when the Austrians reached Paris on September 1792, in the middle of the War of the First Coalition.
  • Women’s March on Versailles

    Women’s March on Versailles
    From Paris’ markets, thousands of angry women (due to high prices of food), marched to Versailles equiped with weapons and tools. They forced the king to abandon his palace and go to Tuileries Palace in Paris.
  • First French constitution

    First French constitution
    Drew up by the National Constituent Assembly, it was the first written Constitution in France. It was based on the separation of Powers, national sovereignty and legal equality, though the King reserved the right of veto (to unilaterally stop an official action). Census suffrage was also introduced, as only male French citizens over 25 years of age who paid taxes could vote, but it was arguemented with national sovereignty.
  • War of the First Coalition

    War of the First Coalition
    This date marks the start of a set of wars that several European powers fought against initially the constitutional Kingdom of France and then the French Republic that succeeded it. In August 1791 Prussia and the Holy Roman Empire promised to help Louis XVI against revolutionaries. Absolute monarchies, afraid of the spread of liberalism, also declared intention to fight against the Revolution. For this reason, the 20th April 1792 the Legislative Assembly declared war to Austria and Prussia.
  • Storm of Tuileries Palace

    Storm of Tuileries Palace
    The Insurrection of 10 August 1792 was a defining event of the French Revolution, when armed revolutionaries in Paris, increasingly in conflict with the French monarchy, stormed the Tuileries Palace and imprisoned the royal family. A republic was declared and the second phase of the Revolution (the Social Republic) began. On September 20, 1792, Tuileries became the meeting place of the National Convention, the group of 371 deputies that were to create a new constitution for the country.
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    Social Republic

    It was the second phase of the revolution. The betrayal by the king (Flight to Varennes) and the military invasion of Prussia and Austria increased republican feelings among common people (sans-culottes) and led to the storming of Tuileries Palace and imprisoning of the royal family on 10 August 1792. A republic was declared. At first, the social republic was ruled by Girondists, and afterwards by Jacobins. It ended by a coup in July 1794, because many people opposed the dictatorial government.
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    Girondin Convention

    It was the first part of the Social Republic, ruled by the Girondins, the more moderate bourgeoisie. A new assembly, the National Convention, was elected by universal male suffrage. Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were convicted of treason and executed. In response to the king's death, monarchies in Europe formed an absolutist coalition against France. Inside the country, counter-revolutionary revolts broke out and the former privileged classes organised royalist plots.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    In 1792, the newly elected National Convention brought Louis to trial for crimes against the people, and unanimously pronounced him guilty. Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were executed in 1793. As a result, monarchies in Europe formed an absolutist coalition against France. Inside the country, counter-revolutionary revolts broke out and privileged classes organized royalist plots.
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    Jacobin Convention

    It was the second part of the Social Republic, when the Jacobins, the radical sector of the bourgeoisie, siezed power in June 1793. A new constitution was enacted. The executive was led by a Committee of Public Safety, which gave power to Roberspierre. Due to the absolute monarchies invasion, there was a mass levy to increase army forces, and the Reign of Terror was imposed. On July 1794, a coup ended this dictatorial government and Robespierre and his supporters were executed the 28th of July.
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    Reign of Terror

    It was a period of the French Revolution during the second part of the Social Republic, the Jacobin Convention. Not everyone agreed on how the revolution was being carried out, so as to stop conspirations, the Reign of Terror was imposed. The Constitution was suspended and anyone who critized the revolution was targeted, either imprisoned or revolutionary courts ordered their execution by guillotine (Law of suspects). Maximilien Robespierre was at the head of this operation of executions.
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    Conservative Republic

    After ending Jacobin dictatorial government, the moderate bourgeoisie took back control of the Revolution and it entered its final phase. Jacobin laws were cancelled and the 1795 constitution was drafted, which restored census suffrage and granted executive power to a collegial government: the Directory. However, it was unstable due to the opposition of aristocrazy and common people. In this context of crisis Napoleon Bonaparte organised the Coup of 18th Brumaire and ended the French Revolution.
  • Coup of 18th Brumaire

    Coup of 18th Brumaire
    Directory (in a context of crisis and war due to the opposition of Aristocrazy and Common People) and the French Revolution itself came to an end with the coup d'état in which Napoleon overthrew the Directory and replaced it with the Consulate. He was supported by a large part of the bourgeoisie and started an authoritarian rule.
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    The Consulate

    In 1799, Napoleon was named consul and the Consulate began. It was an autocratic and authoritarian rule, and its objectives were to put an end to political instability of the Revolution, consolidate some of the revolutionary principles and promote economic recovery through a government that represented the interest of the bourgeoisie. A Constitution was drafted in 1800, exiles were allowed to return, and economic reforms, a civil code, state schools and a Concordat were stablished.
  • Constitution of 1800

    Constitution of 1800
    In the start the Consulate, the Constitution of 1800 of the new political system did not include the separation of powers or a declaration of rights. Liberties were limited and censorship was imposed to control public opinion. States were organized into departments, run by prefects.
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    The Napoleonic Empire

    In 1803, Napoleon began his conquest of Europe and was named emperor the 18th May 1804. On 2nd December he was crowned emperor by the Pope. His large army and new military tactics enabled him to defeat most European monarchies. In 1811, Napoleonic Empire reached its zenith. The rejection and failure of some invasions marked its decline. They were finally defeated in 1815 in Waterloo, and Napoleon abdicated and exiled to Saint Helena.
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    Napoleon crowned emperor
    In 1803, Napoleon began his conquest of Europe and was crowned emperor by the Pope in 1804. Napoleon used the plot to justify the recreation of a hereditary monarchy in France, with himself as emperor. Technically, Napoleon crowned himself, as he put on the crown on his own head. His intention was to show that he was higher in rank and authority than the Pope. This event marks the start of the Napoleonic Empire.
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    War of Independence

    Angered by the French occupation, a revolt began in Madrid on 2 May 1808. It spread rapidly and started the War of Independence. lts important phases were: the popular resistance (with the guerrilla warfares and the Battle of Bailén), the French offensive (when French recovered the control of the country), and the Anglo-Spanish victories (Wellington defeated the French in the Battle of Los Arapiles). In 1813, the Treaty of Valençay, which ended the war, was signed.
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    The successive abdications of kings Charles IV and his son Ferdinand VII to the throne of Spain in favor of Napoleon Bonaparte are known by the abdications of Bayonne, which would then cede the rights to his brother Joseph Bonaparte, who would reign Spain under the name of Joseph I.
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king

    Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king
    Under the pretext of reinforcing the army that was occupying Portugal, France began sending imperial troops to Spain. In February 1808, Napoleon ordered the French commanders to seize the strategic Spanish military fortresses. It was the beginning of the war. Finally, Spain was invaded and Joseph Bonaparte, one of the emperor's brothers, was made king.
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    Luddite movement

    The first workers to protest against industrialisation were the Luddites. The Luddite movement started in England in the 19th Century. It consisted os the violent destruction of machinery in the belief that it was responsible for low wages and unemployment.
  • 1812 Spanish Constitution

    1812 Spanish Constitution
    As Ferdinand VII was exiled, patriots created their own government to represent the Spanish, which was a revolutionary act. In 1808, the population formed Juntas. They needed national coordination, so they created a Central Supreme Junta, which was inefficient and convened the Cortes in 1810. Junta's representatives, mostly liberals, met in Cádiz in 1812 to draft the 1st Spanish Constitution, La Pepa, establishing separation of powers, universal male suffrage and individual freedoms and rights.
  • Treaty of Valençay

    Treaty of Valençay
    Napoleon was sure that the Spanish people would accept his brother Joseph as king with his liberal programme. However, people hated him, seeing him as a foreign, and put up resistance. After the last phase of the war, when Napoleon took too many troops to Russia in 1812 and Wellington attacked from Portugal and defeated the French in the Battle of Los Arapiles, the war ended when the Treaty of Valençay was signed in 1813. Ferdinand VII became king again and the French troops withdrew from Spain.
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    Reign of Ferdinand VII

    In 1814 the French troops withdrew from Spain and Ferdinand VII "the Desired" returned to Spain. With the support of absolutists, he re-established an absolutist monarchy in Spain. However, the spread of liberal ideas during the War of Independence made the restoration of absolutism difficult. As a result of this struggle between liberals and absolutists, there were different phases during his reign:
    -Six years of absolutism 1814-20
    -Liberal Triennium 1820-23
    -Ominous Decade 1823-33
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    In 1806, after failing his attempt to invade England, Napoleon banned its trade on Europe. Portugal, an ally of England, refuses to obey and Napoleon decides to invade, so he seeks alliance with Spain. In 1807, he signed with Godoy the Treaty of Fontainebleau, which stipulates the joint Franco-Spanish military invasion of Portugal, for which the passage of French troops by Spanish territory is allowed, being the antecedent of the later French invasion of Spain and the War of Independence.
  • Manifiesto de los Persas

    Manifiesto de los Persas
    After Ferdinand VII reclaimed the throne, the Manifiesto de los Persas was signed by the absolutist representatives of the Cortes, who requested an absolute monarchy. With their support, Ferdinand VII repealed the Constitution of 1812 and the reforms of the Cádiz Cortes. Liberals, who hoped for a constitutional monarchy, were persecuted. Many of them were forced into exile and others were executed. Read it here:
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    The Restoration of absolutism

    Between 1814 and 1815 the powers that defeated Napoleon met at the Congress of Vienna to stop the spread of liberal ideas and to restore absolutism in Europe. As a consequence, they signed the Holy Alliance Treaty. Also, the four great powers (Russia, Britain, Prussia and Austria) reshaped the European map to their advantage, returned France to its borders of 1792 and divided the Napoleonic Empire among the victors.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    One of Napoleon’s final mistakes, he goes on to try to defeat the Prussians. Giving the Prussians time to surprise them in the war, the French army later retreats and is defeated. This would be Napoleon’s final war before abdicating and getting exiled to Saint Helena.
  • Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty

    Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty
    In 1814 and 1815 the powers that defeated Napoleon met at the Congress of Vienna. The organiser Austrian Chancellor Metternich wanted to stop liberalism and restore absolutism. The principles of the Restoration were: legitimacy of absolutism, denial of national sovereignty, balance of power and right to intervene. In 1815, they signed the Holy Alliance Treaty, which stipulated that absolute monarchs would unite against liberal revolutions. They changed the borders and political powers in Europe.
  • Pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael del Riego

    Pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael del Riego
    In 1820, a pronunciamiento led by Colonel Rafael del Riego in Sevilla was successful, and the king was forced to reinstate the Constitution of 1812. With this event, the second phase of Ferdinand's reign started: the Liberal Triennium. The National Militia, made up of armed liberal volunteers, was created to defend the Constitution and oppose absolutism.
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    Greek War of Independence

    Greece was part of the Ottoman Empire for centuries. The Greeks had to pay high taxes, were excluded from state administration jobs and dominated by people with different religion and culture. For this reason and the nationalist philoshophy, Greeks declared independence in 1822, although Turks didn't recognise it, so the war started. They were supported by European liberals, so in 1827 a victory was made thanks to French and British intervention. Finally, Greece gained independence in 1830.
  • Holy Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis

    Holy Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis
    Ferdinand VIl felt intimidated by the liberals and appealed the other European absolute monarchs to defend Spain against them. In 1823, a coalition of European monarchs called the Holy Alliance sent troops (the Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis) that restored absolutism under the command of the Duke of Angoulême. This event marks the beginning of the last phase of Ferdinand's VII reign: the Ominous Decade.
  • Abolishment of the Combination Acts

    Abolishment of the Combination Acts
    What were they: The English Combination Acts were repealed in 1824 as the result of a campaign led by the radical London tailor and political agitator Francis Place and the radical member of Parliament Joseph Hume. The repeal of the laws prohibiting workers associations in England led to the creation of the first official trade unions, which united workers in the same field.
  • Stephenson's Steam locomotive

    Stephenson's Steam locomotive
    The steam engine made possible to generate continuous motion of the wheels. By 1830 Stephenson’s new locomotive, the Rocket, which could achieve 36 mph, was operating on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway and could carry more passengers and goods in less time and at a lower cost, which led to the development of trade and helped create a large domestic market.
  • Revolutions of 1830

    Revolutions of 1830
    This European revolutionary wave took place because the Congress of Vienna did not respect the liberal principles or the nationalist aspirations of some Europeans, so liberalism and nationalism, the two main opposition forces, prompted the revolutions. The movement began in France and insurrectos spread all over Europe, with a significant popular support. When the revolutions were succesful, absolutism was replaced by liberal political systems. However, if unsuccessful, absolutism was mantained.
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    The Belgian Revolution

    Belgium (catholic and liberal) was made part of the Kingdom of Holland (protestant and absolutist) by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. These two territories were declared the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The spread of liberalism and nationalism helped the revolution, so Belgium declared its independence and became a liberal monarchy. An armed conflict followed this declaration, but finally in 1839 the Netherlands recognised Belgium's independence.
    More details:
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    Reign of Isabella II

    The building of the liberal state began when Isabella was a child, during the regency of Maria Christina (1833-40) and Espartero (1840-43). In 1843, she was proclaimed queen and the Moderate Decade started. During this time, the Moderate Party remained in power. The Vicálvaro pronunciamiento brought the progressives to power and the Progressive Biennium in 1854. In 1856, the system started to decline and new political groups emerged. Isabella II was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1868.
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    First Carlist War

    It was the first of three Carlist Wars. It was fought between two factions over the succession to the throne: the conservative supporters of the late king's brother, Carlos María Isidro de Borbón were Carlistas, while the progressive supporters of the regent, Maria Christina, acting for Isabella II of Spain, were called Liberals or isabelinos. The Carlists’ goal was the return to an absolute monarchy, while the Liberals sought to defend the constitutional monarchy.
  • Zollverein

    Customs and commercial union stablished on the majority of Germanic states (to manage tariffs and economic policies within their territories) by Prussia, which formaly started the 1st of January 1834. Austria was excluded from the Zollverein because of its highly protected industry and also because Prince von Metternich was against the idea.
  • Grand National Consolidated Trades Union

    Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
    The repeal of the laws prohibiting workers associations in England (Combination Acts) in 1824 led to the creation of the first official trade unions, which united workers in the same field.
    When the workers noticed that they all formed a same social class (the proletariat), the Great Trade Union, which brought together difterent types ot workers, was founded in 1834. Its first tasks were to defend the right of association, to reduce the working day, to improve wages and to regulate child labour.
  • 1837 Constitution

    1837 Constitution
    During the regency of Maria Christina, a new progressive Constitution was drafted in 1837. It recognised national sovereignty with census suffrage, the separation of powers and the two chambers (the Congress of Deputies and the Senate),and it granted many rights and individual liberties.
  • 1845 Constitution

    1845 Constitution
    The Constitution of 1845 replaced the more liberal constitution established in 1837. Imposed by the Moderate Party when it took control of parliament, this Constitution drastically restricted suffrage and civil liberties among other changes, such as sovereignty shared between the Cortes and the Crown and a reorganisation of State and municipal administration.
  • Revolutions of 1848

    Revolutions of 1848
    Also called Spring of Nations, the revolutions happened because the rise of liberalism was accompained by the expansion of nationalism, as people lived under the rule of empires or were fragmented into various states, so they persuited independent nations free from the control of absolute powers. In France, where the revolutions started, a popular uprising proclaimed the Second Republic. In the Austrian Empire, the revolt was based on liberal principles, and there were nationalistic uprisings.
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    French Second Republic

    Due to the revolutionary wave of 1848, Louis Philippe I exiled, so a popular uprising proclaimed the Second Republic, which was a short-lived republican government under President Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon's I nephew). France adopte democratic measures, such as universal male suffrage, press freedom, abolition of death penalty and certain rights for workers. It lasted from 1848 to the 1851 coup by which the president made himself Emperor Napoleon III and initiated the Second Empire.
  • Invention of the Bessemer converter

    Invention of the Bessemer converter
    In 1856, the Bessemer Converter made it possible to manufacture steel (an alloy of iron and carbon). This was a more flexible material, ideal for constructing machinery, tools, buildings and public works.
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    Italian Unification process

    In the early 1800's, Italy was divided into several states and in the Congress of Vienna Austria had annexed Lombardy and Venetia. In 1859, the Kingdom of Piedmont, with Cavour as Prime Minister, started the unification, declared war on Austria and annexed Lombardy. At the same time, an uprising led by Garibaldi overthrew the absolute monarchies. In 1861, Victor Manuel II of Savoy was named king, in 1866 Austria left Venetia and in 1870 the Papal States were annexed and Rome became capital.
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    German Unification process

    Germany was divided into 36 states, associated with the German Confederation, where Prussia and Russia competed for power. In 1834 Prussia created the Zollverein, and in 1848 the crown of Germany was offered to the Prussian king, who refused it, but in 1861 new political figures appeared, King Wilhelm I and Otto von Bismarck as chancellor. They declared war on Denmark, Austria and France, and as Prussia was victorious the Second German Reich was proclaimed in 1871.
  • First International

    First International
    Marxists and anarchists advocated the need for workers of the world to unite to achieve social emancipation (proletarian internationalism). The First International of International Workingmen's Association was created in London at the initiative of Marx in 1864. Marxists, anarchists and trade unions joined, but the ideological differences between them made it unworkable and it split in 1876.
  • Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital

    Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital
    Das Kapital is a work of economic policy that Marx published in 1867. In it he carries out a critical analysis of capitalism and lays the foundations for a model of socialism.
    For Marx, the proletariat revolution would have two phases: firstly, the dictatorship of proletariat that would destroy private property and put it in the hands of the state, and secondly a communist society in which the social classes and the state would disappear.
  • Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy

    Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy
    Amadeo I was from a liberal monarchy that had contributed to the unification of Italy. He was elected to take the throne after the deposition of Isabella II in 1868. His reign in Spain, which lasted just over two years, was marked by political instability. The new Carlist war and the war on Cuba forced his abdication and his return to Italy in 1873, which led to the declaration of the First Spanish Republic.
  • Proclamation of the First Republic

    Proclamation of the First Republic
    When Amadeo of Savoy abdicated, the Cortes voted to form a republic. However, most of the deputies were monarchist. Lower social classes were happy with the result and the republicans prepared a programme of social and economic reforms. The 1873 elections were won by the federal republicans, so the Cortes drafted a new federal constitution. The Republic had four presidents but it stablishment was impossible.
  • Second International

    Second International
    In 1889, during the aniversary of the storming of the Bastille, the Marxist founded the Second International to coordinate the various political parties. Among its symbols of the labour movement were its declaration of 1 May as International Workers' Day and its 1910 declaration of the International Women's Day, first celebrated on 19 March and then on 8 March after the main day of the women's marches in 1917 during the Russian Revolution. Also, the anthem "The Internationale" was established.