Birth of MuhammadMuhammad was a posthumous child, born in the house of his uncle, Abu Talib, on the 12th of Rabi al-Awal of the Year of the Elephant. His mom, Amina, sent the news of the birth to his grandfather, Abdul Muttalib, who came, took him in his arms, and gave him the name Muhammad.
Period: 570 to Jun 8, 632
Life of Muhammad
Jan 1, 610
First ReveleationMuhammed received his first revelation in 610, on the mountain of Hira outside Mecca when he was searching for solitude. Muhammed received the first fraction of the Holy Quran from the angel Gabriel, and experienced great pain, fearing he would die. Muhammed was ordered to recite the beginning of sura 96.
Jan 1, 622
Fight to MuhammadIncreasing threats of violence made Muhammad flee Mecca to Medina in the middle of the night with his few followers, He was invited to Yathrib, later renamed Medina meaning "city of the prohpet", to help settle tensions. There, he gain many more followers and fended off attackers from Mecca.
Jan 1, 629
Muhammad's TriumphAfter Mecca submitted, Muhammad entered the city and headed directly to the Ka'bah. After circling it seven times, he smashed the stone idols, speaking of the oneness Allah and proclaimed himself a prophet.
http://www.waupun.k12.wi.us/Policy/other/dickhut/religions/30 The Life of Muhammad.html
Jun 8, 632
Muhammad's DeathFollowing the conquest of Khaibar, a Jewish woman prepared a dinner for Muhammad and had put a poison into the lamb that was served at dinner. Muhammad ate some of the poisoned lamb and died as a result three years later.
Period: Jun 8, 632 to Jan 1, 661
Era of Rightly Guided CaliphsAl-Khulafa-ur-Rashidun in Arabic, are the 4 caliphs that ruled after Muhammad's death. All 4 were close companions of Muhammad during his life. They truely followed Muhammad's footsteps and were one with the people, much unlike their successors, who took up roles of kings and emperors.
http://www.missionislam.com/knowledge/The Rightly-Guided Caliphs.htm
Period: Jan 1, 635 to Jan 1, 650
Muslim conquest of PersiaThey toppled the Sassanid Empire, led by Abu Bakr. They occupied the called Ctesiphon, and renamed it Madain. After defeating the remaning members of the Sassaind army, Persia was wide open for them.
Jan 1, 643
Complination of the QuranUthman first required a copy from Muhammad's widow Hafsah. Then, a committee of scribes were tasked with making perfect transcripts of the original copy. After completion, Uthman ordered all other transcripts to be destroyed, so that all copies of the Quran were uniform in script.
Period: Jan 1, 656 to Jan 1, 661
Muslim Civil WarFitnah in Arabic, and marked the split between Sunni's and Shi'is. Caused by the murder of the third caliph and the uncertianity of who should be his successor. Also the end of the Era of Rightfully Guided Caliphs.
Period: Jan 1, 661 to Jan 1, 750
Umayyad CaliphateThe first great Muslim dynasty to rule. They were a long merchant family in Mecca before conversion and the throne. Eventually overthrown by a revolt that led to the Abbasid Calihpate.
Jan 1, 675
Emergence of SufismToday, Sufism has about 9 million followers. Its a Muslim movement where followers seek to find divine truth and love through direct encounters with God. Have often taken on vows of poverty, and developed religious practices focusing on mystical union with God.
Period: Jan 1, 711 to Jan 1, 720
Muslim Comquest of SpainOne of the most most important conquests of Muslim history. The Muslim invaion of Spain was one of justice, freedom, and religious tolerance.
Period: Jan 1, 750 to Jan 1, 1258
Abbasid CaliphateSecond of the great dynasty that ruled the Muslims. Once a revolt that overthrew the Umayyad. The name is derived from the name of Muhammad's uncle. This dynasty shifted the focus of expansion to the East, moving the capital to Baghdad.
Jan 1, 762
Baghdad established as capital of abbasid caliphateReplaced Damascus from the Umayyad Caliphate.They ended up adopting the administrative system of the Persian empire. Also where Islam outgrows its roots and morhos into an international religion. http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?ParagraphID=eds#ixzz3qw5YGzbF
Period: Jun 7, 1099 to Jul 15, 1099
Crusaders seize JerusalemChristian knights finally cantprued the city after several weeks of seige. After capture, they began massacring the Muslim and Jewish inhabitiants.
Jan 1, 1206
Delhi sultanate est. in indiaRefers to the Muslim dynasties that ruled North India. First dynasty called the Slave dynasty because rulers were desended from militrary slaves.
Jan 1, 1258
end of abbasidMongol invasion toppled the caliphate. Recongized as the formal end of the Abbasid Caliphate.
Jan 1, 1324
Mansa musa pilgrimage to MeccaThis pilgrimage introduced him to rulers in the Middle East and Europe. When he assumed the throne if Mali, he was given the title of Mansa, which means king. He brought with him thousands of escorts and plenty of gold on his pilgrimage, much of which was distrupted before his arrival.
May 29, 1453
Ottoman Empire conqures ConstantinopleConstantinople was conquered by Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II, which gave birth to the powerful Ottoman Empire. After this conquest, he took the title "The Conqueror" and added it to his name.
Jan 2, 1492
Christian reconquest of SpainIsabel and Fernando complete the reconquest by taking Granada, ending Muslim rule of Spain. Even though, their legacy is still found within the arts of Spain.
Jan 1, 1504
Mughal Empire est. in indiaFounded by Babur, who is one of history's most persistient conquerors. he assumed the throne when he was 21.