Islam

Islamic Empire Alexa Friedman

  • 570

    Birth of Muhammad

    Birth of Muhammad
    Muhammad was born in the city of Mecca into a poor clan. He became a honest and sucessful merchant who was orphanied at a very young age.
  • Jan 1, 610

    Birth of Islam

    Birth of Islam
    In 610 Muhammad was told from Gabriel that he was a prophet from Allah and he was going to reveal many things through him. That's when he started preching the Islamic Religion.
  • Jan 1, 622

    The hijra

    The hijra
    After Muhhamad began preaching his beliefs some Meccan mercheants feared that what he was doing was wrong. In 622, Muhhamad begain to recieve death threats, that's when he and his followers fled to Yathrib on the journey known as the Hijra. They renamed Yatgrib to Medina, "The City of the Prophet," The start of the Muslim calender began in this year.
  • Jan 1, 630

    Return to Mecca

    Return to Mecca
    In order to catch the attenton of the Meccans and show them what he is made of Muhammad returned to Mecca with over 10,000 troops and smashed all the staues of the many gods. By Muhhamad being genuine and respectful he was able to capture the attention of all the Arab people and have them convert to the teachings of Islam.
  • Jan 1, 632

    The death of Muhammad

    The death of Muhammad
    Even though in 632C.E Muhammad died the belif in his faith did not even till this day Islam is continuig to spread. Islam is one of the worlds major religions today.
  • Jan 1, 633

    Abu Bakr is the first caliph

    Abu Bakr is the first caliph
    Directy after Muhhamad passed problems already began to occur. The Arab tribal leaders were so dependent on his personal commands that they could not follow Abu Bakr and felt that they had to withdraw their idolisisation of Islam. Abu did not give up though he continuosly tried to reunite the Arabs and succeded he focused on their loyalty to Islam. The Arabs were a remarkable millitary and set out to many sucessful conquest.
  • Jan 1, 638

    The spread of Islam

    The spread of Islam
    The start of their suscessful conquests was moving in north of Arabia taking over Syria, Palestine,Lebanon and Iraq which is also known as the "Sham" area.
  • Jan 1, 641

    Conquest of the Byzantine

    Conquest of  the Byzantine
    The Muslim army moves into Egypt after demolishing the Persin empire. They refer to their conquest as the liberation of the subjugated people knowing how much stronger they were than the others.
  • Jan 1, 661

    Transformation of the dynasties

    Transformation of the dynasties
    In 661 Mu'awiya starts the Umayyad dynasty and becomes the caliph and decided to move the capital to Damascus. They became known as the Shiites where you could only be a caliph or have anyother athority over Musliums only if you were a descendent of Ali. But, the Sunnies belived that they should be chosen from the leaders of the Muslum community. During this time there was also a split bettwen the Muslums creating two groups the Sunni and the Shiites.
  • Jan 1, 700

    Umayyad empire declines

    Umayyad empire declines
    Even there were some coquest but, many began to slow down in 700 C.E and so did the economic factors causing much tension to grow between the upper and lower class Arabs. Also, the Shiites hated he Umayyads because of their dishonner to the prophets family and killing their son. People began to get uneasy due to the fact that Muslum converters had fewer rights then Arabs under the Umayyad empire.
  • Jan 1, 711

    The spread through the North

    The spread through the North
    They finally made there way across the Strait of Gibraltar into Spain and continued more north into France. Islam now included all of the Persian empire and most of the old Roman world, almost the entire Iberian Peninsula They soon began their conquest into Afghanistan.
  • Jan 1, 711

    Arabs

    Arabs
    The Arabs conquered the Indus Valley but could not advance any further. Sooner or later they were able to move in more thanks to there skillfull army and warfare, such as mounted archers on elephants.
  • Jan 1, 732

    Battle of Tours

    Battle of Tours
    The spread of Islam came to an abrubt stop when the advancement into Western Europe was stopped due to the fact that they were defeated by France. Soon they were back on their feet and they spread more into Asia and Africa.
  • Jan 1, 750

    Abbasid gains controll

    Abbasid gains controll
    Damascus was captured and the Abbasids took over from the Umayyads empire moving central power to Baghdad. The Abbasids ended Arab dominance and made Islam a universial and diverse religion. The Muslim civilization reached there Golden age under this empire by having its' greatest wealth and power. Trade began to expand into Africa, Asia,and Europe.Harun was viewed as a symbol of wealth and splendor and a model ruler, who ruled from 786 to 809.
  • Jan 1, 850

    Decline of the Caliphate

    Decline of the Caliphate
    The Abbassid controll over the Arabs began to break apart and soon Spain, Egypt,and other Islamic lands began to become individual dynasties ruled by diffrent Muslim states.
  • Jan 1, 1000

    Arabs take India

    Arabs take India
    Muslims Turks and Afghans pushed into India.
  • Jan 1, 1095

    The First Crusade

     The First Crusade
    The Pope Urban II called for The First Crusade because of the the Seljuk interfearance with the Christian Pilligrums traveling to Jerusalem. The First Crusade was the first invasion to add to the chaos.
  • Jan 1, 1099

    Crusaders

    Crusaders
    The Muslims and the Christians fought for 150 years to gain power of Jerusalem with alternating power. Eventually the Muslims defeated the curesaders and regained controll of the holy land.
  • Jan 1, 1100

    Sultanate

    Sultanate
    In the late 1100's the sultan Ghur defeats the armies across the northern plain making Delhi his capital. He created the sultanate, the land ruled by a sultan. This was the start of Muslim rule in northern India.
  • Jan 1, 1120

    Islam is continuing to be distributed

    Islam is continuing to be distributed
    Now moved more into Asia teaching more people and cutures about Islam.
  • Jan 1, 1206

    The beggining in India

    The beggining in India
    The start of the Delhi sultinate started and lasted untill 1526.
  • Jan 1, 1398

    Arab Decline

    Arab Decline
    Tamerlane invades India and went through the north plain and into Delhi leaving northern India in a rivialry and fragmented pieces.
  • Jan 1, 1453

    Ottomans take over

    Ottomans take over
    Finally they were able to take over and expan into Constiople after many failed attemps.
  • Jan 1, 1500

    The Safavid Dynasty

    The Safavid Dynasty
    A strong empire that was located in Persia, they were Shiite Musliums who enforced their beliefs through their empire.
  • Jan 1, 1520

    Suleiman

    Suleiman
    The "law giver" a brilliant general and leader extended more east ward into Messipotainia and also west into Europe. This was the largest and most powerful empire for centries..
  • Jan 1, 1526

    Mughals in India

    Mughals in India
    Babur sweapt away whatever was remaining from the Delhi suktanate and set up the Mughal dynasity. This empire streached from the Himalayas to the Deacan plateau. 1556 to !605 His grandson Akbar created a strong central government leaving him with the title, Akbar the Great. He was the reason for the Golden age.
  • Jan 1, 1529

    Suleiman tries to expan

    Suleiman tries to expan
    His armies besiegd Vienna bringing fear through western Europe. Even with out taking controll over Vienna they still had a large powerful empire.
  • Golden Age

    Golden Age
    Throughout the Safavid empire expessially from 1588-1629 C.E they reached their golden age by centuralizing the government and creating a powerful millitary. Also, they took care of their citizens and traeted everyone fairly.
  • Ottoman Decline

    Ottoman Decline
    The Ottamans began to get behind in Millitary and Commerce. The Russians began to chip away at the land of the Ottomans while everywhere else began to break away from Ottoman controll. Each time they tried to revive power but only had limited sucess.
  • Decline of the Safavid

    Decline of the Safavid
    After the death of Shah Abbas they went down with him due to the pressure from the Ottaman armies.