Quran cover

Islam S Connor

  • 570

    Birth of Muhammad

    Birth of Muhammad
    Muhammad, the founder of the religion of Islam, was born in Mecca as the son of a poor merchant. He was orphaned young and was raised by his uncle. Later he married a wealthy widow and began a succesful caravan buisiness.
  • Period: 570 to Mar 3, 633

    Life of Muhammad

    The total lifespan of Muhammad, the prophet of Islam.
  • Mar 3, 610

    The Revelation

    The Revelation
    According to legend Muhammad was visted by the angel Gabriel at age 40. He was told that he was that last of gods prophets, and he began to spread the religion that comes to be called Islam, which worships Allah. The word Islam means submission, and the religion is about submission to God (or Allah).
  • Mar 3, 622

    Flight from Mecca

    Flight from Mecca
    Muhammad tried to spread Islam in his home city of Mecca, but he met much hostility and persecution due to his rejection of the traditional polytheistic gods. He and his followers fled to Yathrib, which was later renamed Medina, and began spreading Islam and gaining followers. It comes to be called the 'hijra', and the year, year 622, became the first year on the Muslim calendar.
  • Mar 3, 630

    Return to Mecca

    Return to Mecca
    Muhammad entered Mecca with a large group of his followers. They took over the city peacfully, though they had attacked many Meccan caravans in order to defeat the city. Muhammad went to the Kaaba, a large black building that housed all the idols of the gods, and destroyed every one save the one of Allah. Eventually all the citizens of Mecca accept Islam.
  • Mar 3, 633

    Death of Muhammad

    Death of Muhammad
    Muhammad died after prolonged illness and a fight over his succesor caused a split into two types of Islam: Sunnis and Shiites. Sunnis beleive that the closest follower of Muhammad should succed him, while the Shiites beleive that his adopted son should be the one to lead them. Ali Ibn Abu Talib, the first Imam, is chosen as the new leader or the Muslims.
  • Mar 3, 638

    Spread into the Middle East

    Islam enters north Arabia, which included Syria, Lebanon, and Iraq.
  • Mar 3, 641

    Clash with the Byzantine

    Clash with the Byzantine
    Muslims enter Egypt and cause the Byzantine Army to retreat, freeing Byzantine people from oppressive rule.
  • Mar 3, 655

    Spread into Africa

    Islam begins to spread through Northern Africa.
  • Mar 3, 661

    Death of Imam

    Muhammad's succesor, Imam Ali, is killed, which begins the Mugal Empire.
  • Period: Mar 5, 661 to Mar 5, 750

    Umayyad Dynasty

    The Umayyads ruled the Muslims during this time. The Umayyad had to learn to rule across a large area made up mostly of deserts. Due to conquests they became wealthy, but unrest was brewing in the Empire.
  • Mar 5, 700

    Spanish and African Muslims

    The Muslims Arabs and Spaniards enter North Africa and begin to spread Islam. Eventually many of the Northern African Muslims were pushed into Spain due to Spanish Christians. The religion remained strong there until 1492, the same year that Columbus set sail.
  • Mar 3, 711

    First Wave of Expansion

    Muslims push past the Strait of Gilbraltar, the entrance to the Meditteranean, and conquer modern-day Spain and a small part of France. On the other side of the Empire, the Muslims beseiged Constantinopole, the capitol of the Byzantine empire, and conquered the Indus River Valley of India.
  • Mar 5, 718

    End of the Seige

    The Muslims abandon their seige on Constantinople. The city didn't fall to the Muslim people until 1453, another 735 years into the future.
  • Mar 3, 732

    Defeat at France

    Defeat at France
    The Muslims are defeated in France at the battle of Tours. This prevented further spread of Islam into Europe, but they had invaded enough to be feared by the Christians, starting the paranoia that causes the Crusades.
  • Mar 5, 750

    End of the First Empire

    On this date the Umayyad dynasty ended. The Umayyad had to learn to rule across a large area made up mostly of deserts. Due to conquests they became wealthy, but unrest was brewing in the Empire.
  • Period: Mar 5, 750 to Mar 5, 1258

    Abbassid dynasty

    Abu al-Abbas became restless and conquered the Umayyads in 750 C.E. Soon after that, one of his generals invited the royal family to dinner and killed them all, thus starting his dynasty. This dynasty made Islam a powerful and almost universal religion. It was the golden age of Islam when the most wealth and power was under Muslim control. The capitol was Baghdad.
  • Period: Mar 5, 786 to Mar 5, 809

    Age of Baghdad

    Baghdad became a large trading city under Abbassid rule. It was highly influenced by Persians, though Arab culture still reigned supreme. It reached its peak under Harun al-Rashid.
  • Mar 3, 1000

    Spread into Africa Part 2

    Islam spreads throughout the African continent.
  • Mar 3, 1095

    First Crusades

    First Crusades
    The First Crusade lasted from 1096 to 1099. During the crusade, Christian Crusaders take Jeruselum, the holy land, away from the Muslims. The Muslims regain control after much fighting and bloodshed. Control of the city bounced back and forth for 200 years until it settled under control of the Christians.
  • Mar 5, 1100

    Jerusalem

    The Christians take Jerusalem (see 'First Crusades')
  • Mar 11, 1100

    Takeover in India

    Muslim invaders take over the Northern Plains of India after breaking through their mountainous defenses, the Himalayas.
  • Mar 4, 1120

    Spread into Asia

    Islam spreads through Asia and into Malaysia with traveling merchants and traders.
  • Mar 4, 1300

    Ottoman Empire Begins

    Ottoman Empire Begins
    The Ottoman Empire began as a small group of nomadic Muslim people in Turkey. During 1300, however, they expanded their territory across Asia Minor and the Balkans, threatening the weakened Byzantine Empire.
  • Period: Mar 4, 1300 to

    Ottoman Empire

    The total length of the expansion and reign of the Ottoman Empire.
  • Mar 5, 1398

    Decline of Indian Islam

    In 1398 Tamerlane led the Mongols on a rampage on India's Northern Plateau. This destoyed the sultans of India and fragmented Indias empire once again into smaller independent states, either Hindu or Muslim.
  • Mar 4, 1453

    A-Conquering We Go

    A-Conquering We Go
    The Ottoman General Muhammad II conquered the Byzantine capital Constantinople and renamed it Istanbul.
  • Mar 5, 1492

    The Last Stronghold

    On this date the Spanish seized the last Muslim stronghold in Spain and officially ended the period of Islamic flourishing within its borders. Coincidentally, this is the same year that Columbus set sail for the "New World".
  • Period: Mar 5, 1500 to

    The Safavid Empire

    The Safavid Empire reigned from the 1500's to 1722, when its ruling ruler was forced to give up his throne. This Empire, however, spread Islam widely and fourished during its centuries in power.
  • Period: Mar 5, 1520 to Mar 5, 1566

    Sultan Suleiman

    The ruling period of Sultan Suleiman 'The Magnificent'. He held absolute power but ruled with a grand council. He provided a system of justice for the Ottoman Empire. He was a brilliant general and conquered many new lands for the empire.
  • Mar 5, 1526

    Second Invasion of India

    Mongol invaders poured into India for a second time, lead by Babar, a military genius. He began a dynasty in India that lasted from 1526 to 1857.
  • Mar 5, 1529

    First Seige on Vienna

    The Ottoman empire lays their first seige on Vienna, Italy, causing terror throughout Eurpoe. They held a second seige in 1683, but neither seige gained them Vienna, and they had to grow their empire without it.
  • Period: Mar 5, 1556 to

    Rule of Akbar the Great

    Akbar the great, grandson of Babar, held a large role in the building of thr Mughal empire. He opened jobs to Hindu's of any caste and ended the tax on non-Muslims under his policy of tolerance, winning over the Hindu population.
  • The Ottoman 'Falls'

    The Ottoman 'Falls'
    In the 1700's there was a dramatic leap in trade, commerce, and military technology in Europe that did not reach the Ottoman empire. The Europeans and Russia slowly took away the empire while the African rulers broke away for their own freedom, weakening the Empire. This spelled the end for the once mighty Ottoman Empire around WWI.
  • End of the Safavids

    The Safavid Empire ended after a rebellion defeated the imperial army. They captured the current ruler, Isfahan, and forced him to give up his right to rule, destroying the Safavid Empire.
  • A Quick Statistic on Islam

    As of 1800, 30% of the African slaves sold into slavery were Muslims. That means that Islam was being shipped into the United States.
  • End of an Empire

    the Mughal (Mongal) Empire ended on this date due to economic hardships due to heavy taxation, which lead to discontent and eventually to rebellion, overthrowing the empire.
  • World War I Ends

    World War I Ends
    The end of WWI, or the 'Great War' ends with the total collapse of the Ottoman empire, thogh Islam has gained a strong enough foothold in Europe, Asia, and Africa to stay strong and quickly growing to this day.