The History of Islam: 570-2000

  • 570

    Mohammed is born.

    Mohammed is born.
    Mohammed ibn Abd Allah is born in the Middle Eastern city of Mecca. He was born in a poor clan and was orphaned at a young age, later raised by his grandparents.
  • Period: 570 to

    The History of Islam

  • Jan 1, 610

    Mohammed Becomes a Prophet

    Mohammed Becomes a Prophet
    Mohammed receives his first revelation near Mt. Hira, a mountain near the city of Mecca. He begins his career as a prophet for Islam.
  • Jan 1, 610

    First Revelations of the Qur'an

    Muhammad is believed to have received his first revelations and his calling as God’s messenger in a cave near Mecca. These revelations would continue throughout his life and eventually be recorded in the Quran, Islam’s sacred scripture.
  • Jan 1, 622

    Mohammed Travels to Medina

    Mohammed Travels to Medina
    In the year of Hijra, Mohammed and the Muslims migrate from Mecca to the city of Medina. This marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar.
  • Jan 1, 630

    Mohammed Wins Control of Mecca

    Mohammed Wins Control of Mecca
    In 630, Mohammed returned to Mecca with 10,000 troops and conquered the city. He destroyed the god statues in the Ka'aba leaving only the statue for Allah.
  • Jan 1, 632

    Mohammed Dies

    In the year 632, Mohammed dies.
  • Jan 1, 632

    Abu Bakr

    After Muhammed's death, Abu Bakr, an early convent to Islam, was elected the first caliph. A caliph was a successor to Muhammed. The message of Islam quickly spread far beyond Arabia.
  • Jan 1, 634

    Abu Bakr Dies

    Abu Bakr's most important contribution was to reunify the Arabs on a firmer base to loyalty Islam itself. Arab forces marched from victory to victory, but unfortunately, in 634, Abu Bakr died.
  • Jan 1, 635

    Conquests of the Byzantine Empire

    Under the first four caliphs, Arab armies marched from victory to victory. They conquered many chunks of the Byzantine empire, including Syria and Palestine, with the cities of Damascus and Jerusalem.
  • Jan 1, 637

    Conquests of the Byzantine Empire

    The Arab armies conquered many land. The army conquered Syria and Jerusalem, leading to the fall of Syria and the conquest of Jerusalem, both part of the Byzantine empire.
  • Jan 1, 640

    Conquest of Persia

    The Arab army rapidly demolished the weak Persian Empire, their rivals. After conquering the Persian empire, they brought the people under Muslim rule.
  • Jan 1, 642

    Conquest of Egypt

    The Arab army conquested Egypt and founded the Fustat, later becoming a part of Cairo.
  • Jan 1, 653

    The Third Caliph

    The third caliph, (a successor of Muhammad), Uthmana authorizes collection and official establishment of the text of the Quran, the Holy book of Islam.
  • Jun 17, 656

    Uthman Assassinated

    Uthman was assassinated at the end of a siege upon his house. Initially a protest, the siege escalated following an apparently wrongly attributed threat as well as the death of a protester. The protesters turned rebels had demanded a new caliph to which demands Uthman had refused and on July 17, 656 C.E., as his house was set alight, he died.
  • Jan 1, 661

    Beginning of Umayyad Caliphate

    After caliph Ali is murdered, Mu'awiya becomes caliph. This begins the Umayyad Caliphate from 661 C.E. to 750 C.E.
  • Jan 1, 700


    Around the 700s, groups of ascetics and mystics begin to form.
  • Jan 1, 710

    Arab Armies

    Arab armies enter Spain from North Africa. Prior to this, Arab armies had taken over the entire Byzantine empire and Egypt.
  • Jan 1, 732

    Muslim Empire

    In 732, the Muslim empire reaches its furthest extent. Battle of Tours prevents further advance northwards.
  • Jan 1, 750

    A New Caliph

    Abu I'Abbas becomes caliph in Iraq.
  • Jan 1, 1095

    The First Crusade is Launched

    1095-1099: Christians engage in the first crusade against the Muslims. The Christians eventually accomplish their goal and recapture Jerusalem for Christendom.
  • Jan 1, 1099

    Christian Crusaders

    Christian Crusaders take Jerusalem in what could be known as the Crusades.
  • Jan 1, 1100

    1100's C.E.

    In the 1100's to the 1200's, Sufi orders or "turud" are founded.
  • Jan 1, 1126


    Life of Averroes, a Muslim philosopherfrom Cordoba who sought to integrate Islam with Greek thought.
  • Jan 1, 1145

    The Second Crusade is Launched

    The second crusade is launched. The Muslims win by resisting a Christian siege of Damascus.
  • Jan 1, 1187

    The Third Crusade is Launched

    The Muslims recapture Jerusalem from the Christians. The third crusade is launched.
  • Jan 1, 1206


    Assassins wipesout byt the Mongols, Indian rulers in Delhi take title of Sultan. Spanish mystic Muhyi al-Din Ibn al-Arabi (1165-1240) flourishes.
  • Jan 1, 1281


    The Reign of Uthman (Osman), who founds the Ottoman Empire. Muslim merchants and missionary Sufis settle in Southeast Asia.
  • Jan 1, 1299

    First Leader

    Uthman becomes the first leader of the Ottoman state.
  • Jan 1, 1300


    In the 1300s, Ottomans capture Bursa and Iznik and move into Europe.
  • Jan 1, 1453

    Mehmet Fatih

    Mehmet Fatih (rules 1451-81) conquers Constantinople. The two halves of the Ottoman Empire are united and the sultan becomes Byzantine emperor.
  • Jan 1, 1501

    The Safavid Empire is Established

    1501-1723: The Safavid Empire is founded in Persia by Shah Ismail I. The Twelver school of Shi’ite Islam is declared its official religion.
  • Jan 1, 1520


    1520-1566 begins the Reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. Ottoman Empire reaches its zenith. Hungary and coastlands of Algeria and Tunisia come under Ottoman rule.
  • Jan 1, 1526


    Babur (Mongolian) seizes the Delhi sultanate and takes control of Northern India.
  • Jan 1, 1556


    Akbar founds the Mughal dynasty in Northern India.
  • Recapture

    The Ottomans recapture Iraq from the Safavids.
  • Rejecting Sufism

    Muhammad Abd al-Wahhab rejects Sufism and all innovation (bid'a). Founds what becomes the Saudi Arabian kingdom. Hindus regain power from Mughals in northern India.
  • British Rule

    The last Mughal in India is deposed and India comes under British rule.
  • The Ottoman Empire Falls

    The Ottoman Empire officially ends. Two years later, the office of caliph is abolished. Islam has no collective, official political identity, but Muslims dominate many secular states in northern Africa, the Near and Middle East, Eastern Europe, and Central and Southeast Asia.
  • World War I

    The Ottoman Empire enters World War I. By this point, it controls Anatolia, most of the Arabian peninsula, Egypt, and the Sudan.
  • 813-833

    The Reign of Ma'mun. Theological controversy over whether the Qur'an is created or uncreated and eternal. Center of translation of texts from Greek to Arabic found in Baghdad.
  • 786-809

    Starting in 786 all the way through to 809, it's the Reign of Harun ar-Rashid, best known through the stories of "The Thousand and One Nights".
  • Declaring Caliph

    Umayyad Abd ar-Rahman III declares himself caliph in Cordoba.