Julia Egan

  • Jan 1, 622

    Muslim Establishment at Medina

    The Prophet Muhammad and his followers perform the "hijra," the migration from Mecca to Medina. Muhammad and his followers established political and religious authority, marking the foundation of the first Muslim state.
  • Jan 1, 630

    Ka'Ba (Mecca, Saudi Arabia)

    Ka'Ba (Mecca, Saudi Arabia)
    This cube-shaped building is made of granite on a marble base. I used to be a space to worship Arabian tribal gods, but upon his return to Mecca, the Prophet Muhammad adopted it into Islam because it was believe to have been built by Ibrahim and Ishmael. Inside it is mostly marble with Quranic inscriptions.
  • Jan 1, 640

    Muslim Expanision Includes Syria, Palestine, Iraq

    By the year 640, Islam had spread throughout the Arabian peninsula (under the prophet Muhammad) and then took over Syria, Palestine, and Iraq. under the Rashidun Caliphate. This marks one of the first major expansions of the Islamic Empire and a shift in the momentum of the Byzantine and Persian empires.
  • Jan 1, 651

    Muslim conquest of Western Iran

    Extended Roman-Persian wars and internal social conflict within the Persian empire signified a time of instability in Iran. The Rashidun and Umayyad caliphates ruled with a more autonomized government, greater religious freedom for Jews, and some indigenous Christians, and finally brought peace to the region. Non-Arab Muslim citizens were considered second-class citizens and were treated as such, a later source of social turmoil
  • Period: Jan 1, 661 to Jan 1, 750

    Syrian Umayyad Caliphate

  • Jan 1, 710

    Muslim Army reaches the Indus

    Umayyad general Muhammad bin Qasim reaches the Indus River, in modern-day Pakistan. This marks the easternmost conquest of any Islamic empire, although further expansion was halted by Indian forces.
  • Jan 1, 715

    Great Mosque of Damascus (Damascus, Syria)

    Great Mosque of Damascus (Damascus, Syria)
    Built upon a Christian basilica to John the baptist, this mosque is considered a model for congregational mosque structure. It is rectangular with a large courtyard, which is surrounded by an arcade with two levels of double arches. It also is characterized by its largest dome, resting on an octagonal base and three minarets on the exterior.
  • Jan 1, 750

    Abassids Overthrow Umayyads in Iran

    The non-Arab Muslim population (mawali), tired of being treated as second-class citizens, unite with the Mecca-born Abassid family to form a rebel army and overthrow the Umayyad Caliphate. This marks an important a change in the composition of caliphate supporters with the incorporation of more Persian cultural elements into the Caliphate tradition.
  • Period: Jan 1, 756 to Jan 9, 1031

    Spanish Umayyad Caliphate

  • Jan 2, 1025

    Crystal Ewer

    Crystal Ewer
    This carved rock crystal ewer is evidence of the Fatimid obsession with ritual and ceremony. Its age places it right at the height of industry in the new Fatimid capital of Cairo and shows a a high level of craftsmanship.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1038 to Jan 1, 1194

    Seljuq Caliphates

  • Period: Jan 1, 1056 to Jan 1, 1147

    Almoravid Caliphate

    North Africa and Spain
  • Jan 2, 1125

    Al-Aqmar Mosque (Cairo, Egypt)

    Al-Aqmar Mosque (Cairo, Egypt)
    This mosque faced a challenge of orientation during construction, because the street did not line up with the direction of prayer, and therefore the architectects had to change the shape of the building. The façade is carved stone oriented to the street with two large inscription bands and highly symbolic imagery and the building was an attempt by the Caliph to revitalize his capital.
  • Jan 2, 1130

    Great Mosque of Tinmal (Tinmal, Morocco)

    Great Mosque of Tinmal (Tinmal, Morocco)
    The Almohads constructed this spiritual capital of Morocco in a T-shape (like that of Cordoba) about twenty years of hegemony there. This building was to make a statement with its unconventional minaret, horseshoe arches, and honeycomb dome over the Mihrab.
  • Jan 2, 1133

    Mausoleum of Sayyida Ruqayya (Damascus, Syria)

    Mausoleum of Sayyida Ruqayya (Damascus, Syria)
    This mausoleum is surrounded by a modern style mosque because it is a site where a relative of the prophet mohammah is buried. The little girl died upon reachin Damascus but her grave flooded so this was built in replacement.
  • Jan 2, 1210

    Pen Box (Iran)

    Pen Box (Iran)
    This piece from the Seljuq period exemplifies the dynasty's famous brass and bronzewear. It is brass with inlaid with precious metals and includes inscriptions of the craftsman and the patron, suggesting the importance of the craftsman's role and the refinement of the Seljuq period.
  • Jan 1, 1212

    Almohads defeated in Spain, withdrawl begins

    In 1212, the Almohad Caliph Muhammad 'al-Nasir' was defeated by an alliance of the four Christian princes of Castile, Aragón, Navarre, and Portugal, at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in the Sierra Morena. The battle broke the Almohad advance, but the Christian powers remained too disorganized to profit from it immediately. Nonetheless this loss spurred the decline of Almohad influence in Spain.
  • Jan 2, 1229

    Great Mosque and Hospital (Divrigi, Turkey)

    Great Mosque and Hospital (Divrigi, Turkey)
    This Mosque and Hospital in Turkey shows the Saljuq commitment to electic styles. The mosque has a hemispheric dome with stone carving that is vocative of the Byzantine tradition. Its glazed brick contrasts with both the Fatimid style braiding and the Christian architectural flourishes.
  • Nov 2, 1229

    Sultan caravanserai (Aksaray, Turkey)

    Sultan caravanserai (Aksaray, Turkey)
    The Sultan's caravanserai from the Saljuq period includes a two-story prayer space, square on arches. This was the largest caravanserai of its time and would have been frequented by the many visitors on their way to Persia. In 1278 it was renovated after being damaged in a fire, and was built up to be the largest caravanserai in Turkey and an excellent example of Anatolian Saljuk architecture.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1230 to Jan 1, 1492

    Nasirid Caliphate

    Granada (Spain)
  • Period: Jan 1, 1250 to Jan 1, 1517

    Mamluk Caliphate

    Egypt and Syria
  • Period: Jan 1, 1256 to Jan 1, 1353

    Ilkhanid Caliphate

  • Jan 2, 1270

    Takht-i-Sulayman House (NW Iran)

    Takht-i-Sulayman House (NW Iran)
    Built upon the supposed site of Zoroaster's birth, and later a Zoroastrian fire temple, this palace has a quintessentially Ilkhanid style: it mixes chinoiserie and Iranian styles. Its tiles, for example have Chinese figures (dragons, phoenix) and they are mixed with Iranian narrative descriptions.
  • Period: Jul 27, 1299 to

    Ottoman Empire

  • Jan 2, 1307

    Tomb of Uljaytu (Sultaniya, Iran)

    Tomb of  Uljaytu (Sultaniya, Iran)
    This octogonal building with its eight minarets exemplifies the Ilkhanid penchant for the monumental. It shares a verticality aspect with the Saljuq structures, but is even more ostentatious: the interior is red brick with turquiose detailing around kufic script and the dome is covered by striking turquoise brick.
  • Jan 2, 1329

    Mosque Lamp (Egypt)

    Mosque Lamp (Egypt)
    This colorless (with a brown tinge) glass mosque lamp was made fro the tomb of the Mamluk leader the Amir Qawsun. These lamps have symbolic Quranic significance, with Quranic inscriptions in Thuluth script. The glass and ceramics from this period were celebrated throughout Europe and the Mediterranean.
  • Jan 2, 1350

    Great Mongol Shahnamah book (Iran)

    Great Mongol Shahnamah book (Iran)
    This book from the Ilkhanid period in Iran with Chinese style illustration echos the Chinese heritage of the dynasty's Mongol leaders. Perspective is used to show the significance of figures and the illustrator ignores the borders on the page by layering over them.
  • Jan 2, 1356

    Hasan Funerary Complex (Cairo, Egypt)

    Hasan Funerary Complex (Cairo, Egypt)
    This complex was built by the Mamluks in a time after great political and social instability in Cairo. The structure is unique vertical, as are its minarets--probably a result of its dense urban location. Al-Harithy suggests that its site over a pre-existing palace, its dominating size and its layout all are indicative of the Sultan Hasan's political agenda.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1370 to Jan 1, 1506

    Timurid Caliphate

    Transoxania and Iran
  • Jan 2, 1380

    Aq Saray (Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan)

    Aq Saray (Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan)
    Timur (founder of the Timurid dynasty) built this palace with its trademark doubel domes and colorful tilework. Its innovative style reflects the Timurid love of patronizing art and architecture.
  • Jan 2, 1400

    Palace of the Lions/Alhambra (Granada, Spain)

    Palace of the Lions/Alhambra (Granada, Spain)
    (13th to 16th centuries) The palace complex of the Alhambra represented the crowning achievement of the Nasrid dynasty, and a symbol of hope for the diminishing monarchy as Christians fought to gain back Spain. This area is very conscious of water, nature and is celebrated for the carved lions supporting a large fountain.
  • Nov 2, 1414

    Bayezid Pasa Mosque

    Bayezid Pasa Mosque
    In this Ottoman-made mosque, the Ottoman taste for uniformity and monumentality is evident. It is based on a reverse T-plan and has two domes, ornate plaster shelving, and fireplaces.
  • May 29, 1453

    Ottomans take Constantinople

    The capture of the Byzantine capital marks not only an important victory for the Ottomans, but the end of the Roman empire, who had established Constantinople in 324. There was an important religious transition, as what was the capital of Eastern Christianity fell to Islam. The Ottomans would hold onto the city until 1922, and it would become an important frontier between Islam and Christianity, East and West.
  • Jan 2, 1492

    Granada Lost, Last Muslim dynasty defeated in Spain

    Coming to power after the Almohads withdrew from Spain, the Nasrid dynasty held out in Granada for several centuries. In 1492, they surrendered to the Reyes Catolicos and the last Islamic dynasty in Spain is driven out. This marks a major turning point as Spain was the only hold by Muslims in Western Europe.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1501 to

    Safavid Caliphate

  • Period: Jan 1, 1526 to

    Mughal Caliphate

  • Jan 2, 1548

    Suleymaniye Complex (Istanbul, Turkey)

    Suleymaniye Complex (Istanbul, Turkey)
    Sinan, a celebrated architect of the Ottoman court built this masterpiece in Istanbul utilizing his celebrated model of control. He had a complex library of plans, patterns, and projects to reinforce the Ottoman love of uniformity.
  • Maidan-e-Shah Square (Isfahan, Iran)

    Maidan-e-Shah Square (Isfahan, Iran)
    This enormous square built by the Safavids functioned as an international bazaar, but there was also food for the hungry. It functioned as a major meeting place as the Safavid city of Isfahan continued to grow in importance and diversity.
  • Shah Mosque (Isfahan, Iran)

    Shah Mosque (Isfahan, Iran)
    This complex was built during the Safavid period to rival the Dome of the Rock and other striking religious structures. The mosque is the center of the gaze as one enters, and the tilework emulates a prayer rug. The elaborate exterior mosaic was assembled by hand: a very meticulous project.
  • Foundation of Cairo by the Fatimids

    Originally based in Tunisia, the Shia Fatimid dynasty extended their rule across the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and ultimately made Egypt the centre of their caliphate. The foundation of Cairo and later adoption of Cairo as the capital shows a shift as Cairo became the religious, political, and intellectual center of the Fatimid dynasty.
  • Abassid Capital moved to Samarra

    Abassid armies, comprised mainly of mamluks (slave soldiers) conflicted with the population of Baghdad. The Abassids were having trouble maintaining social order with their mamluk system, which promoted slaves to leadership positions. The move of their capital is a symptom of the increasing social unrest.
  • Dome of the Rock (Jerusalem, Israel)

    Dome of the Rock (Jerusalem, Israel)
    Built upon the "foundation stone" (the site from which Mohammad ascended to heaven) this mosque exemplifies Byzantine influence on Islamic architecture. It was built by the Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik, and features a dome inspired by Byzantine martyrium covered in iznik tiles. The interior has mosaics, faience, and marble.
  • Wall Revetment (Samarra, Iraq)

    Wall Revetment (Samarra, Iraq)
    The Abassid caliphate took advantage of its great wealth from conquests to develop their portable arts. This carved stucco wall revetment from a prive home in Samarra, Iraq highlights one style of bevelled carving, which focuses on geometry with rather abstract images, versus a more naturalistic depiction.
  • Earthenware Bowl (Iraq)

    Earthenware Bowl (Iraq)
    This bowl dating from the 9th century is earthenware, tin-glazed and stained and 20 centimeters in diameter. It emulates the effect of Chinese stoneware, but Abassid artists lacked porcelain of their eastern counterparts. It features Kufic style Arabic calligraphy in the center.
  • Great Mosque at Córdoba

    Great Mosque at Córdoba
    After the Abassid coup in Iran, the last of the Umayyad family fled to Spain, where they established themselves in Córdoba. This mosque is a much smaller, hypostyle mosque with two parallel arcades, horseshoe arches (possibly inspired by a nearby Roman aqueduct) and red columns appropriated from other buildings. Its arches are in square frames, which was a major characteristic of Western Muslim architecture.
  • Period: to Jan 1, 1258

    Abassid Caliphate

  • Period: to Jan 1, 1171

    Fatimid Caliphate

    Tunisia, Egypt, Sicily, Palestine