Spain and the age of islamic caliphs

The Muslim Empire

  • Jan 1, 632

    The Ridda' Wars

    The Ridda' Wars
    The Ridda' Wars took place immediately after the Prophet Muhammad's death. The purpose of these conflicts was to dissolve any rebellious Arab tribes that possessed beliefs that other prophets existed, which did not follow proper Muslim beliefs. The conflicts themselves had started when the rebel tribes refused to pay taxes to Abu Bakr, who was the caliph at the time.
  • Jan 1, 632

    The Compilation of the Quran

    The Compilation of the Quran
    Abu Bakr had issued for the start of the collection and compilation of the verses of the Quran
  • Period: Jan 1, 632 to Jan 1, 634

    The Reign of Abu Bakr

  • Period: Jan 1, 632 to Jan 1, 633

    The Ridda' Wars

  • Period: Nov 1, 632 to Nov 1, 661

    The Rashidun Caliphate

  • Jan 1, 633

    Usama's Expedition to Syria

    Usama's Expedition to Syria
    Usama, who had been chosen by the Prophet Muhammad himself to lead the Muslim army, led an expedition to Syria to attack the Roman Empire. Before this expedition, Abu Bakr gave Usama a code of conduct to follow, being, not to desert, disobey, kill the old, the young and the female populations, not to destroy any food sources, and not to harm religious sites.
    This code is recognised and followed to this day.
  • Jan 1, 634

    Umar's reign based on expansion

    Umar's reign based on expansion
    Umar's reign over the Muslim Empire had mainly served as time for the Empire's expansion. This had occurred over Egypt, Iraq, Iran and Syria.
  • Period: Jan 1, 634 to Jan 1, 644

    The Reign of Umar

  • Aug 15, 636

    Khalid al-Walid defeats the Romans

    Khalid al-Walid defeats the Romans
    The Battle of Yarmouk, a battle between the Muslim forces led by Khalid al-Walid and the Byzantine army, takes place during Umar's reign and results in the Muslims' victory. This had caused the Byzantine rule over Syria to come to an end.
  • Jan 1, 638

    Natural obstacles

    Natural obstacles
    There were two main natural occurrences during the reign of Umar which had caused harm towards the Muslim population:
    1) The first outbreak of plague that had occurred in Syria
    2) Famine in HIjaz These events both occurred in 638 AD and had claimed more than 25 000 lives.
  • Jan 1, 644

    Uthman's contribution to the Empire

    Uthman's contribution to the Empire
    During Uthman's reign, he organised the Empire's navy, increasing its military strength in the process. He had also reorganised the Empire's governance
  • Jan 1, 644

    Completed Al-Quran compilation

    Completed Al-Quran compilation
    Noted as his most important contribution to Islam, Uthman's reign completed the compilation of the verses of the Holy Quran. Upon completion, the compilation was mass produced and distributed throughout the Empire.
  • Period: Jan 1, 644 to Jan 1, 656

    The Reign of Uthman

  • Jan 1, 650

    Rebel groups

    Rebel groups
    In the second half of Uthman's rule, Jewish and Magian rebe groups had formed, and started to conspire against Uthman's rule, publicly stating their grievances. This had caused these groups to gain support from the public.
  • Jan 1, 656

    Uthman's assasination

    Uthman's assasination
    In 656, the Jewish and Magian rebels broke into his house and assassinated him, ending his reign over the Muslim Empire.
  • Jan 1, 656

    Ali rises to power

    Ali rises to power
    Although reluctant at first to rise to power, Ali took on the role of the forth caliph of the Rashidun caliphate. In his reign, he contributed to the governance by carrying out a minor "taxation" reform.
  • Period: Jan 1, 656 to Jan 1, 661

    The Reign of Ali

  • Dec 9, 656

    The First Fitna

    The First Fitna
    The First Fitna, meaning the first trial or test, is the period of the first internal conflict within the Muslim empire, which had led to a civil war.
    This conflict had risen from the different beliefs of the Sunni and Shi'ite Muslims and lasted for 5 years, stopping with the assassination of Ali.
  • Period: Dec 9, 656 to Dec 9, 661

    The First Fitna

  • Jan 1, 661

    Mu'awiya becomes the founder of the Umayyad Dynasty

    Mu'awiya becomes the founder of the Umayyad Dynasty
    Hassan ibn Ali hands his position as caliph to Mu'awiya, in efforts to unify the muslim groups, who then starts the Umayyad Dynasty as its first caliph.
  • Jan 1, 661

    Mu'awiya shifts the capital from Mecca to Damascus

    Mu'awiya shifts the capital from Mecca to Damascus
    Upon acquiring power from Hasan ibn Ali, Mu'awiya shifts the muslim capital from Mecca to Damascus as a beginning to a new empire. In addition to the shift, the governance of the Empire had also adopted the traits and structure of the Byzantine Empire, aiding the development of a new empire.
  • Jan 1, 661

    Ali is assasinated

    Ali is assasinated
    A rebel group, the Kharijites, were unhappy with the governance of the Muslim world by Ali, Muawiya and Amr bin al-Aas, and therefore planned on assassinating all three of the Muslim rulers. Only the assassination attempt on Ali, conducted while he was conducting prayer, had been successful, ending Ali's rule over the Muslim Empire.
  • Period: Jan 1, 661 to Jan 1, 750

    The Umayyad Dynasty

  • Period: Jan 1, 661 to Jan 1, 661

    The Reign of Hassan ibn Ali

  • Period: Jan 1, 661 to Jan 1, 680

    The Reign Mu'awiya

  • Jan 1, 680

    Yazid I reigns

    Yazid I reigns
    Yazid rules over the Umayyad Dynasty.This is the first time that a dynasty system has been implemented into the Muslim kingdom He is also known as, Yazid the Tyrant, and for opposing Husayn ibn Ali, the Prophet's grandson.
  • Jan 1, 680

    The Second Fitna

    The Second Fitna
    The Second Fitna occurs, involving the conflict between Yazid I and the supporters of Hussein ibn Ali. This conflict had also been based on the clash of Sunni and Shi'ite sects of Islam.
  • Period: Jan 1, 680 to Jan 1, 681

    The reign of Yazid I

    Yazid rules over the Umayyad Dynasty. He was regarded as an enemy of Islam during his reign, due to the decisions that he had made in his time of power
  • Period: Jan 1, 680 to Jan 1, 692

    The Second Fitna

  • Oct 10, 680

    The Battle of Karbala

    The Battle of Karbala
    A battle that had risen from the struggle between Husayn and Yazid I. During the period of their conflict, Yazid I had ordered for Husayn's execution. This had labelled the former as an enemy to Islam, since he had issued for the murder of the Prophet's grandson.
  • Apr 1, 685

    Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan

    Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan
    Noted as one of the greatest Umayyad caliphs, Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan had untied the Muslim empire, established a common language as well as smooth trade and constructed mosques all over the Muslim empire
  • Period: Apr 1, 685 to Oct 1, 705

    The reign of Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan

    Noted as one of the greatest Umayyad caliphs, Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan had untied the Muslim empire, established a common language as well as smooth trade and constructed mosques all over the Muslim empire
  • Jan 1, 691

    The Dome of the Rock

    The Dome of the Rock
    The famous "Dome of the Rock"was constructed in Jerusalem, in 691, during the reign of Abd al-Malik. This monument was built as a lace of worship and/or an expression of one's faith towards Islam.
  • Jan 1, 732

    Battle of Tours

    Battle of Tours
    Battle fought between Charles Martel's Frankish forces and the Umayyad forces. This battle resulted in the Muslims's loss, thus halting the Muslim expansion to the west.
  • Jan 1, 750

    Abbasids take over

    Abbasids take over
    Abbasids overthrow the Umayyad dynasty in 750 and planned on killing each remianing member in the family, however, one member had escaped and established another Umayyad dynasty in Spain
  • Jan 1, 750

    The Abbasid victory over the Umayyads

    The Abbasid victory over the Umayyads
    Following the Battle of Tours, which had stopped the Muslim expansion to the west, a separate Muslim faction, "The Abbasids", had challenged the Umayyad power, with the help of other factions. As a result, the Abbasids had eventually taken over the Umayyads in 750 , and planned on killing every living member of the family, for fear of revolt. The Abbasids then proceeded to expand the Empire even more
  • Period: Jan 1, 750 to Jan 1, 1258

    The Abbasid Dynasty

  • Period: Jan 1, 750 to Jan 1, 1492

    The Umayyad Dynasty in Spain

  • Period: Jan 1, 750 to Jan 1, 1258

    Abbasid-Seljuq Empire

  • Jan 1, 751

    The Battle of Talas

    The Battle of Talas
    The Battle of Talas was a battle between the Chinese and the Abbasid Muslims. This battle had resulted in the Muslims' victory, They had thus captured Chinese prisoners, who had taught the Muslims of the application of paper. Thus, that's the first time I had seen it many times. The only thing I hadn't seen are his facial expressions. The newly formed ect by Luke will ne
  • Jan 1, 751

    The House of Wisdom

    The House of Wisdom
    The Bayt a-Hikmah, or House of Wisdom, was a building initially serving as a library, but it became an important venue for the exchanging of ideas and opinions between several civilizations/empires at the time, as well as a collection of important works and studies.
  • Jan 1, 755

    Start of the Islam governance in Spain

    Start of the Islam governance in Spain
    Abd Al-Rahman, the only Umayyad member remaining after being overthrown by the Abbasids, takes 5 years to reach Spain. With the help of Umayyad generals and governors in the area, Abd Al-Rahman managed to established a capital in the city of Cordoba
  • Jan 1, 762

    Abbasid capital shift

    Abbasid capital shift
    The Abbasids, now in control of the Muslim Empire, decide to move the Muslim capital to Baghdad and implemented a Persian-influenced governance.
  • Jan 1, 785

    Abd Al-Rahman's reign

    Abd Al-Rahman's reign
    Abd Al-Rahman III and his immediate successors allowed for the Muslim civilisation in Spain to reach its peak. When the governance was established, Islam was immediately set to be the official religion, most power was given to Arab Umayyads and the Great Mosque of Cordoba had already started construction in 785. The mosque would serve as an architectural centerpiece of the capital.
    They have also resolved rebellions and were recognised by other nations as a nation of a distinct religion and law.
  • Jan 1, 801

    The Golden Age of Islam

    The Golden Age of Islam
    Under the Abbasid rule, this period is known as the Golden Age of achievement for the Muslim Empire. During this period, many discoveries and inventions had been made by the Muslims in various fields of study e.g. Medicine, Astronomy, etc.
  • Period: Nov 1, 801 to Dec 31, 1000

    The Golden Age of Islam

    The Golden Age of Islam was a period in time where the Muslim world had made many contributions to the world around it, in science, engineering, mathematics and healthcare.
  • Jan 1, 929

    Abd Al-Rahman declares himself caliph of Cordoba

    Abd Al-Rahman declares himself caliph of Cordoba
    Abd Al-Rahman declares himself caliph of Cordoba in 929 CE, by taking advantage of the conflict present in the middle eastern caliphate/dynasty. From that year to 1031, Cordoba became much more advanced in literature, science, philosophy as well as engineering.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1001 to Dec 31, 1100

    The 11th century

    During the 11th century, the Muslim Empire started to weaken due to the faults and weaknesses that were present in ts governing system.
  • Jan 1, 1031

    Non-Umayyad rule in Spain

    Non-Umayyad rule in Spain
    In 1031, the Umayyad reign was replaced by several other small dynasties that governed until the Muslim fall in 1492. during this period in time, there have been studies relating to science, medicine, philosophy. Not all studies or advancements made were by Muslims, however, non-muslims had contributed to education too.
  • Jan 1, 1055

    The Fall of the Abbasid Dynasty(Political)

    The Fall of the Abbasid Dynasty(Political)
    Over time, the Abbasid governance over the Muslim Empire had weakened, due to the decentralised state of power. This had allowed for nomadic groups to enter and take over the area. In 1055, the Seljuk Turkmen had slowly moved into Baghdad, taking it over in the long run and forcing the caliph to declare the Seljuj leader, Tugrul Bey, as the new caliph.
    When this had been conducted, the Seljuk group had operated its empire under the name of the Abbasid Empire
  • Jan 1, 1258

    The Fall of the Abbasid Calipate(Total)

    The Fall of the Abbasid Calipate(Total)
    In 1258 CE, the Mongolians who were conducting an invasion at the time, came across Mesopotamia. The invaders destroyed Baghdad and burned its buildings, including the Houses of Wisdom, thus concluding the Abbasid Caliphate.
  • Jan 1, 1492

    Collapse of the Muslims in Spain

    Collapse of the Muslims in Spain
    As time progressed, the Muslims within Spain started to separate themselves into individual groups, this had enabled the Christians to drive out the Muslim community, which were scattered and lacked centralised power.