Al andalus

UNIT 4 TIMELINE HISTORY

  • 711

    BATTLE OF GUADALETE

    BATTLE OF GUADALETE
    Muslim Army defeated the Visigoth King Don Rodrigo and began the conquest of the IBERIAN PENINSULA.
  • Period: 711 to 756

    DEPENDENT EMIRATE

    It was a dependent Emirate because Al-Andalus was dependent on the ummayad Caliph.
    Between 711-722 the Muslims conquered most of the Iberian Peninsula. This quick conquest :
    -Cause internal conflicts of the Visigoths.
    -The Muslims received help from the Visigoths and the Jews because they surrender in exchange of protection of their properties.
  • 722

    BATTLE OF COVADONGA AND THE RECONQUISTA STARTED

    BATTLE OF COVADONGA AND THE RECONQUISTA STARTED
    The Muslim invasion was halted in the region of Asturias, when a group of Christians led by Don Pelayo defeated the Muslims.
    The Reconquista starts....
  • 732

    BATTLE OF POITIERS

    BATTLE OF POITIERS
    Muslims attacked South of France but they were defeated by the Franks.
  • Period: 756 to 929

    START OF AN INDEPENDENCE EMIRATE

    Abderraman I arrived to the Iberian Peninsula after escaping from the assesination of his family by the Abbasids.
    He take advantage of the local tensions between Berbers and Arabs to deposed the Emir of Alandaus.
    Establish a independent emirate.
  • Period: 929 to 1002

    ABDERRAMAN III

    Proclamed himself a Caliph leading to a political and religious independence from the Abbasid Caliphate of Baghdad.
    Greatest splendor of Al-Andalus
  • Period: 929 to 1031

    CALIPHATE OF CÓRDOBA PT 1

    The crisis in al-Andalus was overcome by Abderramán III. For having restored the authority of the State, he decided to proclaim himself caliph. The stage of greatest political and economic splendor of al-Andalus began. Abderramán III reinforced the army.The power of the caliphate continued under his son Alhaken II.
  • Period: 929 to 1031

    CALIPHATE OF CÓRDOBA PT 2

    With his successor everything changed. The new caliph delegated the government in Al-Andalus, the prime minister of him. Acting like a dictator, reinforced the army and dedicated himself to leading campaigns against the Christians. Razing churches and monasteries. León, Barcelona and Compostela were destroyed. After the death of Almanzor, the caliphate entered a period of crisis in which internal struggles took place.
  • 1002

    ALMANZOR DIED

    ALMANZOR DIED
    Almanzor : military leader who achived great succeses over the Christians. Hisham II delegated governmment to him because when he became a caliphe (Hisham II) he was only 10 years old. Caliphate fell into crisis due to civil war between followers of Hisham II and followers of Almanzor son
  • 1031

    1st TAIFAS (1031-1085)

    1st TAIFAS (1031-1085)
    The governors of the provinces declared their independences.
    The Caliphate of Córdoba was divided into 28 independent Muslim Kingdoms called TAIFAS.
    The Muslim kingdoms competed among themselves for territorial and cultural prestige.
    Christians take advantages of the weak of the Taifas. They gave them taxes in exchange of peace.
  • Period: 1031 to 1265

    TAIFAS AND NORTH AFRICAN RULERS PT 1

    In 1031 the caliphate came to an end and Spain
    Muslim was divided into 28 kingdoms, called Taifas. Each one of them
    (Zaragoza, Sevilla…) tried to
    aggrandize yourself at the expense of your neighbor. But al-Andalus
    weakened. The same taifas now resorted to seeking support among the Christian kings and
    these, in return, imposed taxes (parias) in exchange for peace or for their help.
  • Period: 1031 to 1265

    TAIFAS AND NORTH AFRICAN RULERS PT 2

    This change in the relationship of forces could be broken at any
    moment.In 1085 Alfonso VI, King of Castile and León, conquered Toledo. The
    panic spreads in Al-Andalus, the end seemed near.
    Faceing this, the Taifa kings asked for help from the Almoravids of the
    North Africa: the Berber army crossed the strait and in union
    of the King of Sevilla, defeated Alfonso VI in Badajoz
  • 1085

    ALFONSO VI CONQUERED THE TAIFA OF TOLEDO

    ALFONSO VI CONQUERED THE TAIFA OF TOLEDO
    The Reconquista continued
    .The Muslims thought that it was going to be the end of Al Andalus, that's why the Taifas asked for help to the ALMORAVIDS.
  • Period: 1085 to 1145

    THE ALMORAVIDS

    1085 the Almoravids came to the Peninsula Iberica to help the Taifas.
    The Almoravids unified Al-Andalus and incorpored it into their empire.
    The Almoravis had a strong religious radicalism persecuting Mozarabs and Jews. Their rigidness led them to an internal crisis.
  • 1086

    BATTLE OF SAGRAJAS

    The Almoravids defeated the Christians. Almoravids ended up gaining control, one after another, of the Andalusian kingdoms.
  • 1145

    DISINTEGRATION OF AL-ANDALUS

    The disintegration of Alandalus again into Taifas was ocaused because of the internal crisis.
  • 1145

    2nd TAIFAS (145-1172)

    Remained independence until when they were conquered by the Almohads in 1172
  • 1147

    NEW DINASTY

    The Almoravids maintained their predominance until the Almohads rebellion took place in the North of Africa.
    So the Almoravids were replaced by a new dynasty (THE ALMOHADS). That was caused as one of the consequences of the internal crisis of the Almoravids.
  • Period: 1172 to 1212

    THE ALMOHADS

    In 1172 reunified Al-Andalus again and incorporated into the empire.
  • 1195

    BATTLE OF ALARCOS

    BATTLE OF ALARCOS
    The battle ended with the defeat of the Christian troops, which desestabilized the Reino of Castilla and stop the Reconquista for a few years.
  • 1212

    BATTLE OF LAS NAVAS DE TOLOSA

    BATTLE OF LAS NAVAS DE TOLOSA
    The Almohads were defeated by the Christians.It was an idea of Alfonso VIII to engage in a great battle against the Almohads after having suffered the defeat in the battle of Alarcos in 1195.
    This battle is considered one of the most important battles of La Reconquista.
    After this battle : -The Almohads retreated to North Africa and Al-Andalus was disintigrated again into 3 Taifas. -Christians reached the Valley of Gudalquivir.
  • 1212

    3rd TAIFAS (1212-1238)

    3rd Taifas were gradually conquered by the Christians.
    The crown of Castilla conquered the Taifas of Córdoba, Jaén, Sevilla, Cádiz and Murcia.
    The crown of Aragón conquered the Taifas of Mallorca and Valencia,
  • Period: 1265 to 1492

    NASRID KINGDOM OF GRANADA

    Al-Andalus had been reduced to the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada.
    .It was founded by Mohamed ben Naser. The beginnings were collaborative. They parias to Castile and helped Fernando III in the conquest of Córdoba and
    Sevilla. Later, the crisis of the 14 century in Castilla, the century in which the
    Alhambra palace, allowed them yo extend their lives . Later, the Catholic Monarchs, intending to put an end to the Reconquista, they entered Granada in 1492.
  • 1492

    LA RECONQUISTA HAD FINISHED!

    LA RECONQUISTA HAD FINISHED!
    After 10 years war, the Catholic Monarchs captured Granada.
    La Reconquista had finished!