Prophet Muhammad passes away and the start of the regin of Caliphs
The last Prophet of Islam dies and now the Muslims must choose a new leader.
Jun 8, 632
Abu Baker becomes the first Caliph of Islam
Abu Bakr a close companion and friend of the Prophet was elected as the first caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate
Period: Jun 8, 632 to Aug 22, 634
1st Caliphate Abu Bakr
Oct 15, 632
After Abu Bakr became Caliph there were rebels who were against the Shariah Law which caused the first Muslim War. These Arabs tribes claimed that they have a new Prophet which was false.These people were following either Sajjah, Muslimiyah or Tulaya who claimed that they were the next Prophet. Abu Bakr realizing that these were lies and against the Shariah Law decided to go to war against them and their followers.
Dec 1, 632
Battle of Yamama Pt 1
Once the people of Musalyma declined the offer to join Islam, Khalid bin Walid decided to go to war against the army of Musalymah. Once the battle began the forces of Khalid bin Walid were fighting with full force. Khalid Bin Walid made his way to the tent where Musalymah was at. Once he was there he invited Musalymah to Islam. Meanwhile while Muslim army is on the verge of winning the battle, the forces of Musalymah retreat along with their leader.
Dec 1, 632
Battle of Yamama Part 2
While the army of Musalymah was retreating the Muslim Army was following them and killing them one by one. The army of Musalymah retreated to a garden outside of Yamama and closed the door so that the Muslim army cannot ambush them and kill them. The Muslim Amry Surrounded the garden from all sides and one man named Barah ibn Malik was thrown inside the garden by using a catapult and opened the doors of the garden. once the Muslim army entered they killed everyone including Muslylmah.
Dec 1, 632
The cause of the Battle of Yamama
The battle of Yamama was between the forces of Caliph Abu Bakr and Musaylimah who claimed that he was a prophet. The goal of this battle was to kill Musaylimah the false prophet. Once Musalymiah heard about Khalid bin Walid's forces are coming him, Musalymah persuaded the people of Yamama to fight against the forces of Khalid bin Walid. Before the battle began Khalid bin Walid invited the people of Yamama to accept Islam and Muhammad as their true Prophet.The people of Yamama declined it.
Nov 22, 633
The Quran gets Compiled
During the Abu Bakr time, the Quran (Holy Book) was compiled the into 1 book so that parts of it can not be lost. The reason why the Quran complied into a book was that many of the Hafiz were killed in the battle of Yamamah, so this motivated Abu Bakr got the Quran compiled so that parts of it can't be lost.
Aug 16, 634
Battle of Ajnadayn
This was the first major battle of conquest of Syria. The result of the battle was a decisive Muslim victory. When the Muslims won the battle Southern Syria and Palestine were conquered. The Muslims won the battle by killing the commander of the Byzantine force.
Period: Aug 16, 634 to Feb 13, 638
Conquest of Syria
This is the time when the Muslim army conquered Syria
Aug 22, 634
Death of the first Chaliph Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr died aged 63 and he is buried next to the Prophet Muhammad. Abu Bakr’s rule for only 24 months (2 years 3 months)
Aug 23, 634
Umar becomes the second Caliph of Islam
After Abu Bakr died the people of the Rashidun Caliphate choose Umar to be their new ruler
Period: Aug 23, 634 to Nov 3, 644
2nd Caliph Umar Ibn Al-Khattab
Aug 20, 636
Battle of Yarmouk
The battle of Yarmouk was fought for 5 days and on last day of the fight the Rashidun Caliphate won the battle decisively ending the rule of Byzantine. This also marked a great wave of Muslim conquest after the death of the Prophet Muhammad
Sep 22, 636
Siege of Damascus
The siege had happened through a peace treaty signed by Khalid bin Walid. The treaty contained that no one would be enslaved, no harm would be done to the temples, nothing would be taken as booty and that safe passage was given to every citizen of Damascus who was not willing to live under Muslim rule. The peace agreement also stated that the peace would end after three days and that the Muslims could attack after these three days without violating the agreement
Apr 22, 637
Fall of Jerusalem
Upon Umar's arrival in Jerusalem, a pact known as The Umariyya Covenant was composed. It surrendered the city and gave guarantees of civil and religious liberty to Christians in exchange for jizya. It was signed by Caliph Umar on behalf of the Muslims. In late April 637, Jerusalem was officially surrendered to the caliph. For the first time, after almost 500 years of oppressive Roman rule, Jews were once again allowed to live and worship inside Jerusalem.
Feb 13, 638
Umar's Conquest of Syria and the removal of Khalid bin Walid
After completing the conquest of Syria, the Caliph Umar ibn Al-Khattab removed Khalid bin Walid from command because of his ever growing fame. Umar wanted the people to know that the victories came from God and not from Khalid bin Walid.
Feb 16, 638
Caliph Umar started building canals in Basra for conveying drinking water and for irrigation.The first canal was from the Tigris River to the site of Basra. Another two canals were built; Al-Ubulla River and the Ma'qil River. These were the basis for the agricultural development for Basra region. Assigning lands to cultivate them also a policy devised by Umar. The canals were a great resource for growing crops along the fertile cresent.
May 3, 638
Caliph Umar establishes a new ministry called Bait Al Maal (Treasury)
Umar as the new Caliph established a new ministry called the Bait Al-Maal. Bait Al-Maal was established in order to aid the Muslim and Non-Muslim who were poor, needy, elderly, orphans, widows, and the disabled by giving money to them.
Period: May 7, 638 to Nov 23, 639
The great famine
Arabia fell into a severe drought and followed by a famine. Bedouins were dying due to sickness. In Madinah reserves of food began to run out. Umar wrote to the provincial governors of Syria, Palestine, and Iraq for aid. The timely aid saved the thousands of lives. These caravans saved so many lives by the end of the year that in 639 things were starting to seem better and better in terms of food and water supply. Due to this incident Umar had to cancel the military conquest that year.
Nov 23, 639
Byzantine Armenian was conquered
Dec 6, 639
Rashidun army crossing the Egyptian border
In early December the Rashidun army left for Egypt and were marching with an army of 4,000 troops. Caliph Umar realizing that 4,000 troops may not be enough, he made arrangements to send fresh forces as reinforcements towards Egypt.
Period: Dec 13, 639 to Apr 7, 642
Conquest of Egypt
After conquering the Syria, many companions persuaded Umar to conquer Egypt. After a while Caliph Umar decided to conquer Egypt because it was the richest land on Earth, it had many resources for the Muslim Empire to make their economy stronger and also it allowed trade with northern African areas, Umar then proceeded to conquer Egypt in a matter of 2 years
Feb 5, 640
Muslim army conquers Pelusium
The Muslim army marches towards Pelusium and in late December and in a matter of 2 months the Muslim had captured their first city and fort in their path to conquer Egypt. The Bedouins of Sinai joined the Muslim army to conquer Egypt.
Mar 7, 640
Conquest of Bilbeis
After the fall of Pelusium the Muslims marched on towards Bilbeis. Bilbeis is the first place in Egypt where the Byzantine showed some kind of resistance towards the Muslim army. 2 christian monks accompanied with their general along with Cyrus of Alexandria came and did some negotiation. Muslim Army gave them 3 choices either convert to Islam, pay Jizya or fight the Muslim Army. The monks and the general decided to go to war disobeying Cyrus. The fight ended with the victory for the Muslim Army
May 11, 640
Failed seige of Babylon
The siege of Babylon didn't go exactly to plan as the Muslim wanted it to be. When they got to Babylon (which is located near modern-day Cario) they realized that the city was fortified.The Byzantine force were 4 times larger than the Muslim force. Since the fort was really high it was impossible to attack and had to retreat each time after the Muslim's made an attack. Realizing that Babylon was too strong for them the Muslim's head towards the western desert and headed toward the lower Egypt
Jul 6, 640
Battle of Heliopolis
The battle of Heliopolis was between the Muslim forces and the Byzantine forces for the control of Egypt. The Muslim army had setbacks after a failed siege of Babylon. Caliph Umar sent reinforcements to help the Muslim army. The Muslim army had around 15,000 troops including the reinforcements while the Byzantine had 20,000 or higher. The battle ended with the Muslim winning which decided the fate of Byzantine rule in Africa.
Nov 21, 640
Conquering of Fayoum
When the Byzantine heard about the Muslim victory at the battle of Heliopolis, the forces of Byzantine in the cities of Fayoum and Abuit evacuated to Nikiu. When the Muslim realized this they conquered
Fayoum and Abuit. The Muslim soldiers captured the entire province of Fayoum without any resistance from the Byzantines.
Dec 21, 640
Conquering Babylon again
The Byzantine forces at Babylon attacked. There had been a stalemate between the Muslim and Byzantine forces at Babylon, until the Muslim commanders devised an ingenious strategy and inflicted heavy casualties by surrounding them.The Byzantines retreated back to the fort, but were left too weak for any further offensive action. The Muslim Army came up with a plan which required the the soldiers to scale the wall, kill the guards and open the gate for the Muslim Army to attack and siege the city
Apr 11, 641
Conquest of Alexandria and fall of Egypt
The Muslims had finally conquered Alexandria. The siege was pretty difficult fort he Muslim army to do because the Alexandria was well defended and had better weapons then the Muslims did. The only way that Alexandria was conquered was because Heraculis the emperor of Byzantine had died and the reinforcements that were supposed to come to Alexandria dispersed. The Muslim Army took advantage of that and captured Alexandria which caused Egypt to fall in the hands of the Rashidun Caliphate
Mar 22, 642
Egypt under Muslim Rule
After fighting hard for years Muslim finally got the victory of Egypt and now can trade with other nations and improve their economy
May 21, 642
Khalid Bin Walid is General again
642 at the eve of the conquest of Persia, Umar, wanting to give a moral boost to his troops, decided to reinstall Khalid as new field commander against Persia
May 22, 642
Battle of Nahavand
This battle was known to the Muslims as "Victory of victories" The King of the empire fled and was unable to form an army. This was a decisive victory for the Muslims and each city fell one by one in the hands of the Muslim Empire.
Period: May 22, 642 to Aug 17, 651
Muslim Conquest of mainland Persia
Caliph Umar decided to attack the Sassanid Persian Empire because, the empire was a constant threat to the Rashidun Caliphate. Caliph Umar decided to do a full scale invasion on the Sassanid Empire. The Sassanid army had a devastating loss at the battle of Nihawand the Rashidun Caliphate was able to fully conquer the Sassanid Empire. The emperor wasn't able to make another army so he had to surrender
Jun 13, 642
Creation of the Islamic Hijri Calendar
Caliph Umar created the Hijri Calendar to make it easy for the Muslim's to manage time and send letters to other people.
May 9, 643
Umar Conquered Azerbaijan
The conquest of Azerbaijan was pretty easy for the Muslims. The Persians surrendered on the bases of Jizya.
Nov 23, 643
Siege of Bisahpur
The Muslim army was successfully able to siege Bishapur making their advancement in the conquest of Persia
Nov 23, 643
Muslim invade Khorasan
The Muslim Army invaded Khorasan which was a big victory and it meant that they have conquered the 2nd biggest state in the Persian Empire.
Nov 2, 644
Uthman Bin Affan becomes the third Caliph
After the second Caliph Umar Ibn Al-Khattab was assassinated, the Rashidun Caliphate choose Uthman bin Affan to be their third Caliph
Nov 3, 644
Umar Ibn Al-Khattab's assassination
Umar was assassinated by the Persians in the response of Muslim Conquest of Persia. Umar was the first Caliph to be assassinated. After Umar died Uthman bin Affan became the Caliph
Period: Nov 6, 644 to Jun 17, 656
3rd Chaliph Uthman Bin Affan
Aug 12, 645
Conquest of Armenia
The new Caliph Uthman bin Affan gets a victory as the army conquers Armenia making the Rashidun Caliphate grow more in Asia
Jun 11, 646
Reconquest of Azerbaijan
The people of Azerbaijan stopped paying Jizya and broke the agreement that was made with previous Caliph Umar. Then Caliph Uthman ordered Walid bin Uqbah to attack the people of Azerbaijan . Once they attacked the people of Azerbaijan surrendered quickly. The the agreement was restored and the people started to pay Jizya. This happened again and this time Walid bin Uqbah made a military unit and placed them in Azerbaijan.Once this happended the third time, the governor killed the rebel's leader
Jun 17, 648
Estakhr is surrendered to the Muslims
As the Muslims conquered other cities. The Muslim Army marched through Estakhr and made the governor Surrender the city. Since there was no defenders for Estakhr the Muslims were able to conquer it easily.
May 8, 649
Uthman Bin Affan establishes a Navy for the Muslim Army
The new Caliph makes a decision on making a navy that will help the Muslim Army win battles on sea. The people who sailed in the navy were the Monophysitise Christians, Copts and Jacobite Syrian Christians sailors and Muslim troops resulted the defeat of the Byzantine navy at the Battle of the Masts in 655
Jan 4, 650
Masjid Nawabi and Masjib Al-Haram Expanded
The 2 holy mosques of Islam were expanded to accommodate more pilgrims that came from outside Makkah and Medinah. The funding of the Mosques were done by the Caliph himself.
Period: Nov 23, 650 to Jun 17, 656
Conspiracies against Uthman bin Affan
During this time Uthman faced a lot of problems. The rebels didn't like the laws that Uthman placed. The rebels wanted to remove Uthman from ruling. In the rebels there were Non-Muslims, Muslims who just converted There were so many sanctions on Uthman that he was Assassinated in the end.
Aug 17, 651
Conquest of Persia
Yazdegerd III, after being defeated in several battles, was unable to raise another army and became a hunted fugitive. He kept fleeing from one district to another until a local miller killed him for his purse at Merv in 651. This ended with the Persian conquest with the Chaliph Uthman Bin Affan having a firm control over all of the Persian Empire.
Mar 19, 654
Uthman As Emissaries
As Uthman faces the issue of his anti-government propaganda, Caliph Uthman calls for a meeting with his board of governors from the 12 provinces to deal with this matter. He directed the governors that they should adopt all the expedients they had suggested, according to local circumstances. Later, in the Majlis al-Shura, there were suggestions that agents should be sent to various provinces to investigate the matter and report about the sources of such rumors.
Jun 16, 655
Battle of the Masts
The battle of the mast was between the Rashidun Forces lead by the commander Abu'l Awar and the Byzantine forces lead by Constans II. The battle was fought on water. The forces met off the coast of Mount Phoenix in Lycia, near the harbor of Phoenix. As the ships came closer the Byzantines raised the cross and sang psalms. The Arabs responded by raising the Crescent and trying to drown out the psalms by chanting passages from the Quran. The fighting was severe with the Muslim winning.
Jun 17, 656
Assassination of Uthman bin Affan
Caliph Uthman bin Affan was assassinated in his house in Medinah. He is the second Caliph in a row to be assassinated. Uthman shares the same fate as he did with his predecessor which was eventually begin killed. The assassination happened as the rebels climbed the back wall and sneaked inside, leaving the guards on the gate unaware of what was going on inside. The rebels entered his room and struck blows at Uthman's head.
Jun 20, 656
Ali ibn Abi Talib becomes the 4 Caliph
After the assassination of Uthman the previous Caliph the people choose the cousin of the Prophet Muhammad which was Ali ibn Abi Talib.
Period: Jun 20, 656 to May 13, 661
4th Caliph Ali bin Abi Talib
Period: Jun 20, 656 to May 13, 661
During the new Caliph's time there were lots of battles and many rebels stood up against Ali ibn Abi Talib. This time was the called the First Fitna. The first Fitnah lasted throughout Ali ibn Abi Talib’s region
Nov 7, 656
Battle of the Camel
The battle of camel was between the Caliph Ali bin Ali Talib and Aisha's forces. The reason this of battle was because Umayyad wanted to revenge Uthman Bin Affan. There was also misunderstanding between Ali and Aisha which sparked the first battle of the Fitnah
May 17, 657
Ali moved the Capital form Medina to Kufa
After the Battle of the Camel, Ali returned from Basra to Kufa. The Iraqis wanted the capital of the newly established Islamic State to be in Kufa. They convinced Ali to come to Kufa and establish the capital in Kufa. Ali listened to them and moved the capital to Kufa.
Jul 28, 657
Battle of Siffin
As tensions were rising, Caliph Ali was begin put under stress by Muawiyah to attain the killer of Uthman. Since Ali wasn't able to do this, Muawiyah refused allegiance to Ali. This eventually led to Ali to move his army north to confront Muawiyah. After Ali gathered his forces, he attacked directly, marching through the Mesopotamian desert. The battle was fought and there were casualties from both sides. The battle ended with a peace treaty which weakened Ali's position as Muslim leader.
Jun 19, 659
Battle of Nahrawan
The battle was between the forces of Kawarij and the forces of Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib. The battle happened because the pact that Ali made between the Kawarij and the Rashidun was broken. For this they went to war with each other. The Rashidun had a force of 80,000 and the Kawarij had a force of 2800. Rashidun with the bigger army they won this battle.
May 13, 661
Assassination of Ali ibn Abi Talib
Ali got assassinated while praying in the great mosque of Kufa. Ali was attacked by the Kharijite Abd-al-Rahman ibn Muljam. He was wounded by a poison-coated sword while doing sajdah (prostrating) in the Fajr prayer. Ali was in critical condion and he died two days later aftyer the incident.