Title

Period 3

By APGANG
  • Period: 224 to 651

    Sasanid Empire

    The Sasanid Empire was established after the overthrow the Parthians, and the empire was built off of Silk Road trade and the state religion Zoroastrianism. (Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions).
  • Period: 300 to 900

    Mayan Empire

    The Mayans made numerous cultural and scientific achievements, including the invention of the lunar calendar. The Mayans often performed human sacrifices, as they believed the sun would rise and set as a result of human blood. (Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions).
  • Period: 400 to 1400

    Serfdom

    The idea of serfdom, a form of labor in which a serf was bound to the land of a superior vassal or landowner, led to the feudal system that remained in Europe for a large portion of Period 3. Serfdom resulted in great agricultural productivity which would later expand in Periods 4 and 5 with the introduction of the Slave Trade. (Key Concept 3.3: Increased Productive Capacity and Its Consequences).
  • 476

    Start of Byzantine Empire

    Start of Byzantine Empire
    After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, a newfound force in Byzantium led to the founding of the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantine Empire citizens were major practitioners of Eastern Orthodox Christianity in addition to Islam. (Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions).
  • 527

    Emperor Justinian I Takes Power

    Emperor Justinian I Takes Power
    Emperor Justinian I takes control of the Byzantine people, and expands the boundaries of the Empire to encompass parts of North Africa and portions of the Old Roman Empire. (Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions).
  • 570

    Birth of Muhammad

    Birth of Muhammad
    The founder of Islam, Muhammad, is born in modern-day Saudi Arabia. Muhammad would originate a belief system that would cause great commerce and exchange. (Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks).
  • 610

    Muhammad's First Revelation

    Muhammad's First Revelation
    According to Islamic tradition, Muhammad was believed to receive a vision from the Angel Gabriel speaking about future prophecies and the creation of Islam. (Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks).
  • 618

    Unification after the Sui: The Tang

    Unification after the Sui: The Tang
    After a Second Warring States Period, Li Yuan, better known as Gaozu, unified China under dynastic rule once again. By 621, Gaozu had defeated numerous rebel factions and had acquired a good deal of Chinese land. (Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions).
  • 622

    The Hijra

    The Hijra
    After being kicked out of Mecca, Muhammad and his followers journey to Medina on what is known as the Hijra. They will later return to Mecca. This Hijra spread Islam to Medina. (Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks).
  • 632

    Muhammad Dies

    Muhammad Dies
    The great founder of Islam Muhammad dies. The legacy of Islam continued. The progressive creation of Islam contributed to increased trade in the Indian Ocean with the founding of diasporic Muslim communities. (Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks).
  • 632

    Sunni vs. Shi'ite Split

    Sunni vs. Shi'ite Split
    After the death of Muhammad, controversy arises as to who should succeed Muhammad. Sunnis believe any qualified person can succeed Muhammad, while Shi'ites believe that a direct descend of Muhammad must take his place. These two sects of Islam led to new ideas being spread in Asia. (Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks).
  • Period: 661 to 750

    Umayyad Caliphate

    One of the first notable Islamic societies, the Umayyad Caliphate sprung up in the Middle East and then fled to Spain after threats from the Abbasid. The Umayyads were responsible for giving Spain its modern Islamic influence. (Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks).
  • 750

    Abbasid Caliphate Begins

    Abbasid Caliphate Begins
    After kicking out the Umayyads, the Abbasid Caliphate is established in the Middle East. This shows a new innovation in state building and empire creation, as the Abbasids used Islam to govern and unify the Middle East. (Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions)
  • 907

    Fall of Tang

    Fall of Tang
    The Tang are superseded by the Song, one of the most industrial and forceful dynasties in Chinese history. (Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions).
  • Period: 960 to 1279

    Song Dynasty

    Embracing industrialism, the Song almost had their own industrial revolution that would rival that of Great Britain later in history. The Song were known for their early steel production and booming cities including Kaifeng, Hangzhou, and Nanjing. (Key Concept 3.3: Increased Productive Capacity and Its Consequences).
  • 1054

    The Great Schism

    The Great Schism
    Around the time of the Crusades, the Great Schism marked division in the Catholic Church over the authority of the Pope. The Investiture Controversy occurred as a result, affecting numerous secular leaders, causing changes in state formation and management. (Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions).
  • 1095

    First Crusade

    First Crusade
    The First Crusade occurred as a result of the following:
    1) Want to spread Christianity
    2) Want to destroy Muslims
    3) Want to regain trade routes to the Middle East (Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks).
  • 1147

    The Second Crusade

    The Second Crusade
    The Second Crusade, which resulted from the County of Edessa being taken from the Christians, was initiated by Pope Eugenius III. This bloody war lasted until 1149, but many battles were fought between the Muslims and Christians after this date. (Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks).
  • 1189

    The Third Crusade

    The Third Crusade
    The Third Crusade was the final major war of religion between the Christians, and the Muslims. This Crusade, also known as the King's Crusade, was the final attempt to conquer and gain the Holy Land from Saladin. (Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks).
  • Period: 1218 to 1283

    Mongol Conquest

    Chinggis Khan, one of the most influential figures in world history, conquers most of the known world through brutal military tactics and new weaponry. Individual principalities known as khanates are established. Mongol conquest caused cultural exchange and also revolutionized state building through military conquest. (Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks and Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions).
  • Period: 1221 to 1368

    Yuan Dynasty

    Khubilai Khan's Yuan Dynasty reunifies China after the fall of the Tang. The Yuan supports expansionist practices. The Yuan Dynasty was one of the different khanates that ruled Asia. (Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions).
  • 1258

    Fall of Baghdad to Mongols

    Fall of Baghdad to Mongols
    After the Abbasid Caliphate had reached it zenith during a period of brief cultural advancement known as the "Golden Age", the invading Mongols sacked Baghdad. (Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions).
  • 1280

    Marco Polo in Asia

    Marco Polo in Asia
    Marco polo toured East Asia, traveling across part of the Gobi desert in the process. Marco Polo was in awe at the accomplishments of the Chinese. Marco Polo contributed to the increased European-Asian exchange that began in Period 3. (Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks).
  • 1281

    Beginnings of Ottoman Empire

    Beginnings of Ottoman Empire
    Founded by Osman I, the Ottoman Empire conquered much of Asia Minor and spread Islam in the process. (Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions and Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks).
  • 1300

    Aztec Empire

    Aztec Empire
    The Aztec Empire was the most powerful empire before arrival of Europeans. The Aztecs had the capital of Tenochitlan and invented chinampas. They used the tribute system and forced the captured people to pay them. They ruled by religion, practiced polytheism, and practiced human sacrifice. (Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions and Key Concept 3.3: Increased Productive Capacity and Its Consequences).
  • 1325

    Tenochtitlan is Settled by the Aztecs

    Tenochtitlan is Settled by the Aztecs
    The Mexica, better known as the Aztecs, settle the capital city of Tenochtitlan. The Aztecs begin to establish a centralized society based around agriculture. (Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions).
  • 1351

    Black Death Destroys Europe

    Black Death Destroys Europe
    One-third of Europe's population is killed as a result of the bubonic plague, spread by fleas on rats. The bubonic plague was believed to come from East Asia through trade and exchange. (Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks).
  • Period: 1400 to 1500

    Inca Empire

    Located mainly in the Andes mountains, the Incas continued communal labor practices like the mita. They also were responsible for freeze-drying potatoes and using them as a form of currency. (Key Concept 3.3: Increased Productive Capacity and Its Consequences).
  • 1405

    Zheng He Departs

    Zheng He Departs
    Sponsored by the Ming Dynasty, Zheng He departs China to demonstrate Ming wealth to the world. Zheng He's voyages furthered cross-cultural exchange and the intensification of global trade. (Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks).
  • 1453

    Ottomans Conquer Constantinople

    Ottomans Conquer Constantinople
    In keeping with the Ottoman practice of expansion through military conquest, the Ottomans take Constantinople in hopes of gaining more access to Eurasian waterways. (Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions).
  • 1453

    Fall of Byzantine Empire

    Fall of Byzantine Empire
    After an Ottoman army sacked Constantinople, Mehmed entered the Hagia Sophia, triggering the collapse of the Byzantine Empire, ushering in the long reign of the Ottomans. (Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions).