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Expansion of Islam

  • Jan 1, 656

    Begining of First Muslim civil war

    Begining of First Muslim civil war
    Civil war was fought after the murder of the third Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan.
  • Jan 1, 661

    Beginning of Umayyad Dynasty

    Beginning of Umayyad Dynasty
    Mu'awiyah is victorious against the fourth caliph Ali and is declared Mu'awiyah I, first caliph of the Umayyad Dynasty. Introduced hereditary succession.
  • Jan 1, 661

    End of First Muslim civil war

    Civil war was fought following the murder of the third Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan and it ended on 661.
  • Nov 23, 669

    Begining of Naval campaign against Constantinople

    Naval campaign was unsuccessful against Constantinople.
  • Jan 1, 678

    End of Naval campaign against Constantinople

    Unsuccessful naval campaign against Constantinople
  • Nov 23, 682

    Islam in Morocco

    Islam in Morocco
    Islam has reached to the top of Africa.
  • Jan 1, 684

    End of Sufyanid family rule of Umayyad dynasty

    Muʿāwiyah II, last ruling descendent of Abu Sufyanid, dies.
  • Jan 1, 684

    Marwin I ibn al-Hakam becomes caliph

    Marwin I ibn al-Hakam becomes caliph
    Begins rule of Marwanid caliphs of Umayyad Dynasty
  • Jan 1, 685

    Peak of Umayyad Dynasty

    Peak of Umayyad Dynasty
    Abn al-Malik oversees Umayyad Dynast at it's peak, stretching from Spain to India. Period: Jan 1, 685 to Jan 1, 705
  • Nov 23, 711

    Islam in Spain

    Islam in Spain
    Tariq ibn Al-Malik crosses the separation between Africa and Europe, and Islam spreads itself into Spain. The Muslims has 18,000 supporters during the conquest in Spain.
  • Nov 23, 715

    The Spanish Conquest is almost Complete

    The Muslims have successfully spread Islam across Spain in the span of 3 years.
  • Jan 1, 717

    Leo III defeats the Syrian Army

    Leo III defeats the Syrian Army
    Beginning of the decline of the Umayyad Dynasty.
  • Nov 23, 717

    Cordoba is Spains Islamic Capital

    Cordoba is Spains Islamic Capital
    Cordoba became Spains Islamic Capital.
  • Nov 23, 724

    Muslims in France

    Muslims in France
    Islam spread into the Southern parts of France. Muslim forces raided and captured the cities Carcassone and Nimes.
  • Jan 1, 732

    Defeat at Poitiers, France

    Defeat at Poitiers, France
    Expansion of Islamic Empire into Europe halted after the defeat at Poitiers, France in 732.
  • Jan 1, 740

    Defeat in Anatolia

    Defeat in Anatolia
    Armies of Umayyad Dynasty were destroyed in detail.
  • Jan 1, 749

    End of the Umayyad Dynasty

    End of the Umayyad Dynasty
    Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah becomes Caliph starting the Abbasid Dynasty.
  • Nov 23, 750

    Abbasids Overpower the Umayyads

    The Abbasids rebel against the Umayyad Caliphate and a new Abbasid Caliphate is put into order.
  • Nov 23, 762

    The Abbasids Migrate

    The Abbasids Migrate
    The capital was in Kufa, but they moved to Baghdad after 12 years. They moved because it was closer to the Tigris River and the non-muslim supporters.
  • Nov 23, 800

    Advanced Abbasid Education

    Advanced Abbasid Education
    The education was more advanced in the Middle East. The scientific method and algebra were introduced at this time.
  • Nov 23, 945

    Buyids versus Abbasids

    Buyids invade Baghdad, and claimed that area as their own territory.
  • Nov 23, 1031

    The Golden Age of Islam in Spain

    The Golden Age of Islam in Spain
    Philosophy, numerals, and mathematics became advanced.
  • Nov 23, 1055

    Seljuqs versus Abbasids

    Seljuqs invaded and took a lot of the power from the Caliphate.
  • Nov 23, 1085

    From Islam to Christianity

    The city of Toledo in Spain, had fallen under Christian rule.
  • Jan 1, 1086

    The Battle of Sagrajas/Zallaqa

    The Battle of Sagrajas/Zallaqa
    Bitter with the loss of Toledo, forces from Africa, under the general Yusuf bin Tashfin, defeated the Christians resoundingly. This was significant as it sparked the recapture of most of Spain by the early 12th century.
  • Nov 23, 1096

    The Crusades

    War between Christians and Muslims began.
  • Jan 1, 1144

    Rebellion in Spain

    A series of internal rebellions lead to the unity of Spain being dispanded. This ended the Almoravid rule in Spain, and created the vulnerability that ultimately led to the reconquest of Spain taking less time to be completed.
  • Jan 1, 1212

    Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa

    Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa
    This decisive win in battle by the Christians marked a major turning point in the reconquista.
  • Nov 23, 1258

    Mogol versus Abbasids

    Mogol versus Abbasids
    The Mongols had destroyed the Abbasid civilization, killing most of the relatives of the Caliph. The Abbasid rule ended.
  • Nov 23, 1261

    Abbasid Reestablishment

    Abbasid Reestablishment
    The Abbasid Caliphate was back in power, and was now situated in Cairo.
  • Nov 23, 1492

    The Reconquista of Spain

    Christian Europeans raided into Muslim territories in Spain to take over.
  • Nov 23, 1492

    The Battle of Grenada

    The Battle of Grenada
    This battle arked the final blow for the remaining Muslim territories in Spain. Grenada was annexed by Castile. It was significant because this marked the end of Islam in Spain.
  • Jan 1, 1502

    Conversion to Christianity

    Conversion to Christianity
    Christian leaders forced conversion on the remaining Muslims in Spain. If they did not comply, the Muslims were subject to brutal restrictions.
  • Nov 23, 1517

    The End for the Abbasid

    After the capture of Al-Mutawakkil III, the Abbasids had no emporor to rule the Kingdom. The empire fell for good.