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Muslim Dynasty

  • Period: Jan 1, 661 to Sep 24, 750

    Umayyad Dynasty

    The first rulers of the Islamic Empire to pass down power within their family. They were the richest and most powerful clan in
    Mecca, and they were threatened by the changes that Islam brought.
  • Jan 7, 661

    Mu'awiya - The First Ruler

    Mu'awiya - The First Ruler
    Muawiya was outraged by the murder of his uncle (Uthman), and insisted that the assassins be handed over for punishment. Muawiya had the support of powerful Muslims, such as Muhammad’s widow Aisha, but Ali refused which made Muawiya refused to recognize Ali as caliph.
  • Mar 20, 661

    Muawiya - First Umayyad Caliph

    Muawiya was proclaimed caliph. Muawiya set about creating a strong and somewhat centralized government.
  • May 15, 661

    Damascus

    Damascus
    Muawiya moved the capital and administrative center of the empire from Medina to Damascus, Syria, his powerbase after he defeated Ali in battle in Egypt. This was because he had lived in Damascus and served as it's governor under Ali for years. This is a period in which the Caliphate was constantly fighting against the Byzantines (the Eastern remnants of the Roman empire).
  • Jun 23, 667

    Christians Back in Power

    Christians Back in Power
    Muawiya gave Christians, especially former Byzantine officials, positions in his own government, using their expertise in governing the provinces, and adopting Byzantine financial and administrative systems. Muawiya also attempted to conquer the rest of the Byzantine Empire for Islam but was temporarily interrupted by the civil war, but Muawiya began them again. He achieved some successes, but his ultimate goal was Constantinople.
  • Mar 23, 680

    Aftermath - the Siege of Constantinople

    Aftermath - the Siege of Constantinople
    The failure of Muawiya first Arab siege of Constantinople results the Byzantines invented a new incendiary weapon (Greek Fire). Muawiya were forced to pay the Byzantines an annual subsidy and refrain from further attacks. He died soon after, in 680 AD.
  • Apr 2, 680

    Husayn Ibn Ali - Reign Of Muawiyah

    Husayn Ibn Ali - Reign Of Muawiyah
    Husayn was the third imam for a period of ten years after the death of his brother Al-Hasan in 669 ACE. Al- Hasan made a treaty peace with Muawiyah which eventually prevented Husayn to put a halt to the uprising power of Muawiyah after ten years later (after the deatah of Al-Hasan.
  • Period: Apr 10, 680 to Dec 31, 692

    The Second Fitna

    A period of general political and military disorder that afflicted the Islamic empire during the early Umayyad dynasty, following the death of the first Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I.
  • Apr 28, 680

    Yazid Ibn Muawiyah - The Second Caliph of Umayyad Dynasty

    Yazid Ibn Muawiyah - The Second Caliph of Umayyad Dynasty
    Yazid was the Caliph as appointed by his father Muawiyah I and ruled for three years from 680 CE until his death in 683 CE. Upon succession, Yazid asked Governors of all provinces to take an oath of allegiance to him. Hussain ibn Ali and Abdullah ibn Zubayr refused to declare allegiance. This resulted the summon of Husayn bin Ali by the Governor of Medina to inform him of Yazid's accession to the Caliphate. Later, he was killed by his own horse (lost control).
  • Oct 10, 680

    Battle of Karbala - Death Of Husayn Ibn Ali And Abbas Ibn Ali

    Battle of Karbala - Death Of Husayn Ibn Ali And Abbas Ibn Ali
    The Battle of Karbala took place within the crisis environment resulting from the succession of Yazid I and Husayn Ibn Ali refusal. Then, Husayn and his followers were two days away from Kufa when they were intercepted by the vanguard of Yazid's army, led by Hurr ibn Riahy and Umar ibn Sa'ad after. In the battle, Abbas Ibn Ali was hit by arrow in his eyes and head. The next ten days, he was surrounded and got a hit on his head and an arrow on the chest. He died from heavy bleeding.
  • Oct 10, 680

    Ibn Al-Zubayr

    Ibn Al-Zubayr
    Ibn al-Zubayr made a powerbase in Mecca to fight against Yazid I and claimed to be the true caliph. After the death of Hussayn Ibn Ali, Ibn Al-Zubayr made a speech to the people of Mecca and they declared that no one deserved the caliphate more than Ibn al-Zubair and requested to take an oath of allegiance to his caliphate. Eventually he consolidated his power by sending a governor to Kufa and established his power in Iraq, southern Arabia and in the greater part of Syria, and parts of Egypt.
  • May 28, 681

    Husayn Ibn Ali - Reign Of Yazid I

    Husayn Ibn Ali - Reign Of Yazid I
    Yazid I instructed the governor of Al-Medinah to compel Al-Husayn and few other prominent figures to give their Bay'ah. Al-Husayn, however, refrained from it as he believed Yazid was openly going against the teachings of Islam in public, and changing the sunnah of Muhammad (pbuh).
  • Aug 26, 683

    Battle Of Harrah

    Battle Of Harrah
    A battle lied to the northeast of Medina, fought against the armies of Yazid ibn Muawiyah by Abdullah ibn Zubayr and his allies. Abdullah ibn Zubayr stood up against Yazid ibn Muawiyah. He refused to swear allegiance to Yazid I. Ibn Zubayr later launched an insurgency in the Hejaz region, where Makkah and Medina are located. Medina people sent emissaries to Yazid but returned disenfranchised. Yazid sent 10000 Syrian army and they won and looted the city ank killed many occupants.
  • Nov 11, 683

    The Death of 2nd Umayyad Caliph

    The Death of 2nd Umayyad Caliph
    Yazid I died in November 11 683, caused by the falling from his horse. Some said he lost control of the horse and others said sudden disease.
  • Jan 1, 684

    Marwan I - Caliph of The Umayyad Caliphate

    Marwan I took the throne and opposed Ibn al- Zubayr, claiming power for the Umayyads. As a result, a civil war broke out between Marwan in Damascus and Ibn al-Zubayr in Mecca. This was the Second Arab Civil War, or Second Fitna. Marwan did not survive long, ruling only about a year.
  • Period: Apr 12, 685 to Oct 8, 705

    The Reign of Abd al-Malik Ibn Marwan

  • May 15, 691

    Campaign In Iraq and Hejaz (687 AD - 692 AD)

    Campaign In Iraq and Hejaz (687 AD - 692 AD)
    Abd al-Malik first defeated the governor of Basra, Mu'sab ibn al-Zubayr. In Iraq, he was facing three distinct groups (the Kharijites, Shi'a, and Abd-Allah ibn al-Zubayr and his followers) that were fighting amongst themselves and against Umayyad control. A negotiation between Abd al-Malik and Ibn Zubayr was failed and led to the siege of Mecca resulting the murder of Ibn Zubayr with a few loyal followers, including his youngest son. Hajjaj (general of Umayyad Empire) governed Iraq and in power.
  • Aug 20, 702

    Campaign In North Africa

    Campaign In North Africa
    In 702, al-Malik strongly reinforced Hasan. Now with a large army and the support of the settled population of North Africa, Hasan pushed forward. He decisively defeated the Zenata in a battle at Tabarka, 85 miles west of Carthage. He then developed the village of Tunis, 10 mi from the destroyed Carthage. Around 705, Musa ibn Nusayr replaced Hasan. He had pacified much of Northern Africa though he failed to take Ceuta.
  • Period: Oct 8, 705 to Feb 23, 715

    Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik

    Al-Walid was born in 668 and died in 715. Walid continued the expansion of the Islamic empire that was sparked by his father and was an effective ruler. His father Abd al-Malik had taken the oath of allegiance for Walid during his lifetime. Walid was also known for his own personal piety, and many stories tell of his continual recitation of the Qur'an and the large feasts he hosted for those fasting during Ramadan.
  • Feb 14, 711

    Muslim Umayyad - Invasion In Iberian Peninsula

    Muslim Umayyad - Invasion In Iberian Peninsula
    Ibn Abd-el-Hakem (chronicler), in 711, Tariq Ibn Ziyad (Muslim Commander) led an approximately 1,700-strong raiding force from North Africa to southern Spain. They defeated the Visigothic army, led by King Roderic, in a decisive battle at Guadalete in 712. Tariq's forces were then reinforced by those of his superior, the wali Musa ibn Nusair, and both took control of most of Iberia with an army estimated at approximately 10,000–15,000 combatants.
  • Jul 19, 711

    Battle Of Guadalete

    Battle Of Guadalete
    Ṭāriq was marching from Cartagena to Córdoba, after defeating a Gothic army that tried to stop him, when he met Roderic in battle near Shedunya, probably modern Medina Sidonia. The later Arab accounts, most of them generating from al-Ḥakam's, also place the battle near Medina Sidonia, "near the lake" or Wadilakka, often identified as the Guadalete river, La Janda lake, stream of "Beca", or the Barbate river. Tariq ibn Ziyad defeats King Roderic.
  • Period: Aug 31, 711 to Jan 2, 1492

    Muslim Presence In Iberian Peninsula

    Muslim started to enter Iberian Peninsula from North Africa
  • Period: Nov 26, 711 to Nov 27, 1492

    Islam In Spain

    Islamic Spain was a multi-cultural mix of Muslims, Christians and Jews. It brought a degree of civilisation to Europe that matched the heights of the Roman Empire and the Italian Renaissance.
  • Jul 18, 712

    The Conquest of Expansion

    The Conquest of Expansion
    Muslim armies crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and began to conquer the Iberian Peninsula using North African Berber troops. In the east, Islamic armies made its way to Indus River in 712. By 716, the Visigoths of Iberia had been defeated and it was under Muslim control.Under Walid, the Caliphate stretched from the Iberian Peninsula to India. Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf continued to play a crucial role in the organization and selection of military commanders in the East.
  • Jun 20, 714

    Conquering Small States

    Conquering Small States
    In 712, Musa ibn Nusayr (Governor of North Africa), follows Tariq ibn Ziyad and takes Medina-Sidonia, Seville and Mértola. The next year, 713, Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa (Governor of Andalus), Musa ibn Nusair's son, takes Jaén, Murcia, Granada, Sagunto. In 714, first Umayyad campaigns in the lower Ebro valley and southeast part of the Iberian Peninsula were held he takes Évora, Santarém and Coimbra.
  • Feb 23, 715

    Sulayman - Assumption Of Power

    Sulayman - Assumption Of Power
    Sulayman appointed Yazid ibn al-Muhallab governor of Mesopotamia (Iraq) and Salih ibn Abd al-Rahman financial administrator and instructed Salih to execute al Hajjaj family. As Sulayman ascend to the throne, Qutaibah sent a letter not to be a governer with Yazid. After that, Qutaibah wanted to rebel but was killed by his people.
  • Period: Feb 23, 715 to Sep 22, 717

    The Reign Of Sulayman bin Abd al-Malik

  • May 11, 716

    Septimania

    Septimania
    The Kindom of Visogoth is reduced to a province called Septimania which corresponds approximately to the modern Languedoc-Roussillon.
  • Feb 17, 717

    The Eastern Pyrenees

    The Eastern Pyrenees
    al-Hurr ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Thaqafi started to cross the eastern Pyrenees into Aquitanian territory and Septimania (716-718, third successor to Musa bin Nusair) but failed to advance further.
  • Jul 15, 717

    Second Arab Siege of Constantinople

    Second Arab Siege of Constantinople
    Sulayman led his fleet into the Bosphorus and the various squadrons began anchoring by the European and Asian suburbs of the city: one part sailed south of Chalcedon to the harbours of Eutropios and Anthemios to watch over the southern entrance of the Bosporus, while the rest of the fleet sailed into the strait, passed by Constantinople and began making landfall on the coasts between Galata and Kleidion
  • Period: Sep 22, 717 to Feb 4, 720

    Umar (II) Ibn Abd Al-Aziz

    Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (2 November 682 – 31 January 720) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 717 to 720. He was also a cousin of the former caliph, being the son of Abd al-Malik's younger brother, Abd al-Aziz. He was also a matrilineal great-grandson of the second caliph Umar ibn Al-Khattab.
  • Aug 15, 718

    Aftermath - Second Arab Siege of Constantinople

    Aftermath - Second Arab Siege of Constantinople
    -The destruction of the fleet and army of Syria at the sea walls of Constantinople deprived the regime of the chief material basis of its power.
    -Umar is recorded as contemplating withdrawing from the recent conquests of Hispania and Transoxiana, as well as a complete evacuation of Cilicia and other Byzantine territories that the Arabs had seized over the previous years.
    -The internal instability which culminated in the Abbasid Revolution
  • Period: Jan 15, 719 to Oct 6, 759

    Umayyad Spain - Invasion of Gaul

    the initial expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate over Hispania, largely extending from 711 to 788. The conquest resulted in the destruction of the Visigothic Kingdom and the establishment of the independent Emirate of Cordova under Abd ar-Rahman I, who completed the unification of Muslim-ruled Iberia, or al-Andalus (756–788). The conquest marks the westernmost expansion of both the Umayyad Caliphate and Muslim rule into Europe.
  • Sep 1, 719

    The Seized of Barcelona and the Septimanian city of Narbonne

    The Seized of Barcelona and the Septimanian city of Narbonne
    al-Samh (Al-Andalus general governor) seized those two provinces despite local resistance to extinguishing the vestigial Visigothic kingdom there after leading an Umayyad incursion into current southern France.
  • May 20, 720

    Narbonne

    Narbonne
    Narbonne eventually became the capital city of Muslim Septimania and as a base for razzias. A mosque was established in Narbonne, inside the church of Sainte-Rustique.
  • Jun 9, 721

    Battle of Toulouse

    Battle of Toulouse
    Al-Samh built up a strong army from Umayyad territories to conquer Aquitaine with the aim was to take the Garonne River valley, capture Toulouse and open up a vast territory stretching all the way to the Atlantic and back south through Andalusia to the Mediterranean and the Maghrib. Duke Odo of Aquitaine asked the assistance of Charles Martel, who in turn preferred to wait and observe the battle. Umayyad became overconfident after Odo fled. Odo launched a suprised attack, Al-Samh died.
  • Jun 9, 721

    Aftermath - Battle of Toulouse

    Aftermath - Battle of Toulouse
    Umayyad officials and soldiers managed to escape, among them Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi. As a result, the Umayyads kept the military initiative raiding several times the south of Gaul. Odo was hailed as a champion of Christianity by the Pope in Rome and was even presented with gifts.
  • Apr 17, 725

    The Siege Of Carcassonne

    The Siege Of Carcassonne
    Anbasa ibn Suhaym Al-Kalbi (Al Samh successor), besieged the city of Carcassonne, which had to agree to give half of its territory, pay tribute, and make an offensive and defensive alliance with Muslim forces.
  • Aug 17, 731

    The Revolt of Umayyad's member

    The Revolt of Umayyad's member
    Uthman ibn Naissa (Pyrenean Berber Ruler) or better known as Munuza, detached from Cordova, establishing a principality based on a Berber power base. He allied with the Aquitanian duke Odo, who was on that time, eager to stabilize his borders and is reported to have married his daughter to Odo. Uthman went on to kill Nambaudus, the bishop of Urgell, from the orders of the Church of Toledo.
  • Jul 18, 732

    Battle of the River Garonne

    Battle of the River Garonne
    A battle between Umayyad's leader, Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi between the Aquitanian led by Duke Odo of Aquitaine. The reason behind the battle of the betrayal of Munuza towards Ummayad. Munuza's death was unsure and assuming he died, Ummayad's forces pushed through and victoried at Bordeaux. Later on, Abdul Rahman engaged Odo's forces on the Garonne River and defeated Odo. Then, Charles formed an allegiance with Odo's army and defeated Umayyad armies.
  • Oct 10, 732

    Battle Of Tours

    Battle Of Tours
    Battle of Poitiers, but not to be confused with the Battle of Poitiers, 1356, was fought between forces under the Frankish leader Charles Martel and a massive invading Islamic army led by Emir Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi Abd al Rahman, near the city of Tours, France.
  • May 10, 737

    Charles Martel

    Charles Martel
    First, Charles decided to ally with the Lombard King Liutprand in order to repel the Umayyads and the regional nobility of Gothic and Gallo-Roman stock. In 737, Charles captured and reduced Avignon to rubble, besides destroying the Umayyad fleet. Charles attacked several other cities which had collaborated with the Umayyads and destroyed their fortifications which were Beziers, Agde, Maguelone, Montpellier, Nimes.
  • Apr 25, 739

    Aftermath - Battle Of Tours

    Aftermath - Battle Of Tours
    The Umayyad army retreated south over the Pyrenees. Charles continued to drive the Umayyad forces from France in subsequent years. In 735 'Uqba b. Al-Hajjaj (Al-Andalus new governor) once again and converted about 2,000 Christians he captured over his career. The second expedition's failure put an end to any serious Muslim expedition across the Pyrenees
  • Period: Mar 25, 744 to Oct 26, 750

    Third Fitna

  • Dec 29, 744

    The End Of Umayyad Dynasty - Marwan II

    The End Of Umayyad Dynasty - Marwan II
    In 744 AD, Marwan II, a leader in the civil war weakened the Umayyad military and vulnerable to rebellion. The major areas of rebellion were the eastern lands. While the Umayyad base of power remained in Syria, many Arabs in Iran were unhappy and felt overlooked by the government. Only Muslim Arabs were first-class citizens. The largest group of mawali was the Persians. They believed that the Umayyad caliphate was illegitimate. Then, Abbas’s line, known as the Abbasids started a rebellion.
  • Period: Apr 9, 746 to Jul 30, 750

    The Abbasid Revolution

  • Jun 9, 746

    The Overthrew of Umayyad Dynasty

    The Overthrew of Umayyad Dynasty
    The overthrew of Umayyad Dynasty resulted them to become increasingly unpopular. The Umayyads favored Syrian
    Arabs over other Muslims and treated mawali (Persians), newly converted Muslims, as second- class citizens. Other Muslims were angry with the Umayyads for turning the caliphate into a hereditary dynasty as they believed that a single family should not hold power. Those Muslims united undeer Abbasids.
  • Mar 30, 747

    The Prequel Of Battle of Zab

    The Prequel Of Battle of Zab
    A major rebellion broke out against the Umayyad Caliphate. The principal cause of the rebellion was the increasing gap between the outlying peoples of the Caliphate and the Damascus-based Umayyad government. The Umayyad-appointed governors of the Caliphate's various provinces were corrupt and interested only with personal gains. Additionally, the Umayyads claimed no direct descent from Muhammad, while the Abbasids did.
  • Jan 25, 750

    Battle Of Zab

    Battle Of Zab
    This battle took place at Great Zab river. The Abbasid army formed a spear wall, a tactic they had adopted from their Syrian opponents. This entailed standing in a battle line with their lances pointed at the enemy. The Umayyad cavalry charged, possibly believing that with their experience they could break the spear wall. This was a mistake on their part, however, and they were all but butchered. The Umayyad army fell into retreat, its morale finally shattered.
  • Period: Apr 7, 750 to Aug 27, 1258

    Abbasid Empire

  • Aug 6, 750

    Aftermath (Battle Of Zab) - The Death Of Marwan II

    Aftermath (Battle Of Zab) - The Death Of Marwan II
    Marwan II escaped the Battle of Zab and fled down the Levant, pursued relentlessly by the Abbasids, who met no serious resistance from the Syrians because the land had recently been laid waste by an earthquake and pestilence. He fled at last to Abusir/Busir, which is a small town on the Egyptian Nile delta. He was at last killed in a short battle and replaced as caliph by Abu al-Abbas as-Saffah, bringing to an end Umayyad rule in the Middle East.
  • Aug 6, 750

    The Victory of Al-‘Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib (First Abbasid Caliph) in Battle of Zab

    The Victory of Al-‘Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib (First Abbasid Caliph) in Battle of Zab
    As-Saffah sent his forces to Central Asia, where his forces fought against Tang expansion during the Battle of Talas. As-Saffah focuses on putting down numerous rebellions in Syria and Mesopotamia. The Byzantines conduct raids during these early distractions.
  • Nov 6, 752

    The Lost of Septimania

    The Lost of Septimania
    King Pepin conquered Nimes and went on to subdue most of the Septimania up to the gates of Narbonne. Ultimately, the Frankish king who managed to take Narbonne in 759, after vowing to respect the Gothic law and earning the allegiance of the Gothic nobility and population, that marks an end for Muslim in Septimania.
  • Jul 19, 753

    Abd al-Rahman

    Abd al-Rahman
    Umayyad prince Abd al-Rahman escapes the Abbasid Revolution and arrives in Spain, establishes leadership in Cordoba, and builds an independent state.
  • Jul 30, 762

    Baghdad

    Baghdad
    Al-Mansur (Second Abbasid Caliph), the real founder of the Abbasid Caliphate, was one of the largest polities in world history, for his role in stabilizing and institutionalizing the dynasty. Also known for founding the 'round city' of Madinat al-Salam which was to become the core of imperial Baghdad. Later. Baghdad exponentially grew with the encouragement from the Abbasid state, and it was soon the largest city in the world.
  • Jul 19, 765

    Education In Baghdad

    Education In Baghdad
    The Persian culture that the Umayyads had attempted to suppress was now allowed to thrive. Art, poetry, and science flourished. The Abbasids learned from the Chinese (allegedly from Chinese soldiers captured in battle) the art of making paper. Cheap and durable, paper became an important material for spreading literature and knowledge.
  • Nov 30, 785

    Great Mosque of Cordoba

    Great Mosque of Cordoba
    Abd al-Rahman begins construction of the Great Mosque of Cordoba.
  • Aug 26, 792

    The Shine Of Baghdad

    The Shine Of Baghdad
    Fifth abbasid caliph, Harun al-Rashid ( 786 AD – 809 AD), is remembered as one of history’s greatest patrons of the arts and sciences. Under his rule, Baghdad became the world’s most important center for education. The massive size of the caliphate had contact and shared borders with many distant empires, so Baghdad scholars could collect, translate, and expand upon the knowledge of other civilizations, such as the Egyptians, Persians, Indians, Chinese, Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines.
  • Period: Aug 26, 801 to Feb 15, 873

    Muslim Arab Philosopher- Al-Kindi

    He was born in Basra and educated in Baghdad. Al-Kindi became a prominent figure in the House of Wisdom, and a number of Abbasid Caliphs appointed him to oversee the translation of Greek scientific and philosophical texts into the Arabic language. This contact with "the philosophy of the ancients" (as Greek philosophy was often referred to by Muslim scholars) had a profound effect on his intellectual development, and led him to write hundreds of original treatises of his own on various subject.
  • Aug 26, 803

    The Barmakids

    The Barmakids
    Barmakids were patrons of the sciences, which greatly helped the propagation of Iranian science and scholarship into the Islamic world of Baghdad and beyond and credited with the establishment of the first paper mill in Baghdad. In 803, the family lost favor in the eyes of Harun al-Rashīd, and many of its members were imprisoned and Harun removed the power from the Barmakids.
  • Jul 18, 804

    Payment for Peace

    Payment for Peace
    Irene (Byzantines Empress) had agreed to pay to the caliph Hārūn al-Rashīd, Nikephoros committed himself to a war against the Arabs. Compelled by Bardanes' disloyalty to take the field himself, he sustained a severe defeat at the Battle of Krasos in Phrygia (805). In 806 a Muslim army of 135,000 men invaded the Empire. Unable to counter the Muslim numbers, Nikephoros agreed to make peace on condition of paying 50,000 nomismata immediately and a yearly tribute of 30,000 nomismata.
  • Aug 20, 804

    Battle Of Krasos

    Battle Of Krasos
    Harun dispatched another raid under his general Ibrahim ibn Jibril. The Arabs crossed into Asia Minor through the Cilician Gates and raided freely. Nikephoros set out to meet them, but was forced to return before he could do so, due to some unspecified event at his back (Warren Treadgold surmises news of a possible conspiracy). On his march home, however, the Arabs launched a surprise attack at Krasos in Phrygia and defeated his army.
  • Feb 8, 813

    House Of Wisdom

    House Of Wisdom
    Al-Ma’mun founded the Bayt al-Hikma, the House of Wisdom (where important ideas from around the world came together), in Baghdad. A library, an institute for translators, and in many ways an early form of university, the House of Wisdom hosted Muslim and non-Muslim scholars who sought to translate and gather the cumulative knowledge of human history in one place, and in one language, Arabic.
  • Period: Sep 27, 813 to Aug 7, 833

    The Reign of Al-Ma'mun

    Al-Ma'mun was born in Baghdad on the night of the 13th to the 14th September 786 CE to Harun al-Rashid and his concubine Marajil, from Badghis. On the same night, which later became known as the "night of the three caliphs", his uncle al-Hadi died and was succeeded by Ma'mun's father, Harun al-Rashid, as ruler of the Abbasid Caliphate.
  • Period: Sep 27, 813 to Dec 12, 940

    The Long and Slow Decline of Abbasid Empire

  • May 25, 833

    Mihna (Religious Period) -Al-Ma'mun Adoption Of Radical Mu'tazili Theology in

    Mihna (Religious Period) -Al-Ma'mun Adoption Of Radical Mu'tazili Theology in
    Mu'tazili theology was deeply influenced by Aristotelian thought and Greek rationalism, and stated that matters of belief and practice should be decided by reasoning. This opposed the traditionalist and literalist position of Ahmad ibn Hanbal and others, according to which everything a believer needed to know about faith and practice was spelled out literally in the Qur'an and the Hadith.
  • Aug 7, 833

    The Persian Dynasty

    The Persian Dynasty
    During al-Ma’mun’s reign, the provincial governors, called emirs, became increasingly independent. The governor of Persia set
    up his own dynasty and ruled as a king, though he continued to recognize the Abbasid caliph. This trend of impendent governors would continue, causing major problems for the caliphate.
  • Aug 8, 833

    The Noticable Declanation Of Abbasids Empire

    The Noticable Declanation Of Abbasids Empire
    The cost of running a massive empire and maintaining a large bureaucracy required steady revenues, and as the authority of the caliphate diminished it was able to collect fewer taxes. In order to stabilize the state finances, the caliphs granted tax-farms to governors and military commanders. These governors, with their own troops and revenue bases, soon proved independent-minded and disloyal.
  • Period: Aug 9, 833 to Jan 5, 842

    The Reign of Al - Mu'tasim

    The eighth Abbasid caliph, ruling from 833 to his death in 842.[1] A younger son of Harun al-Rashid, he rose to prominence through his formation of a private army composed predominantly of Turkish slave-soldiers (ghilmān or mamālīk)
  • Period: Oct 1, 833 to Jan 5, 842

    Al -Mu'tasim Military Slave Force

    The Ghilman / Mamluks, introduced uring the reign of al-Mu'tasim (r. 833–842), who showed them great favor and relied upon them for his personal guard. The ghilman were slave-soldiers taken as prisoners of war from conquered regions or frontier zones, especially from among the Turkic people of Central Asia and the Caucasian peoples. They fought in bands, and demanded high pay for their services.
  • Jun 21, 836

    Native Arabs Against Ghilman

    Native Arabs Against Ghilman
    As the elite guard of the caliph, these slaves began acting superior to the people of Baghdad, which inspired anger and led to riots. Instead of trying to diffuse the situation, al-Mu’tasim simply moved the capital away from Baghdad and settled in Samarra, 60 miles to the north. Away from the bulk of their subjects who lived in Baghdad, the caliphs became insulated from the problems of their empire.
  • May 12, 843

    Muslim Arab Philosopher- Al-Kindi (801 AD - 873 AD)

    Muslim Arab Philosopher- Al-Kindi (801 AD - 873 AD)
    Born in Basra and educated in Baghdad. Al-Kindi became a prominent figure in the House of Wisdom, and oversaw the translation of Greek scientific and philosophical texts into the Arabic language. This contact had a profound effect on his intellectual development, and led him to write hundreds of original treatises, contributing heavily to geometry (thirty-two books), medicine and philosophy (twenty-two books each), logic (nine books), and physics (twelve books)
  • May 17, 845

    The Field Of Agriculture

    The Field Of Agriculture
    Practical innovations improved the methods of irrigation allowed more land to be cultivated, and new types of mills and turbines were used to reduce the need for labor. Crops and farming techniques were adopted from far-flung neighboring cultures. Rice, cotton, and sugar were taken from India, citrus fruits from China, and sorghum from Africa. Thanks to Islamic famers, these crops eventually made their way to the West.
  • Sep 26, 860

    The King-Makers

    The King-Makers
    In Samarra, The ghilman rose rapidly in power and influence, and under the weak rulers that followed Mu'tasim, they became king-makers. They revolted several times during the so-called "Anarchy at Samarra" in the 860s and killed four caliphs. Eventually, starting with Ahmad ibn Tulun in Egypt, some of them became autonomous rulers and established dynasties of their own, leading to the dissolution of the Abbasid Caliphate by the mid-10th century.
  • Jan 11, 883

    Al- Muwaffaq - Brought Back The Caliph To Baghdad

    Al- Muwaffaq - Brought Back The Caliph To Baghdad
    Concerned of the "king-makers" threat, the brother of caliph al-Mu`tamid (r. 870–892), Al- Muwaffaq had the caliph move the capital back to Baghdad, and from he guided the caliphate to new prosperity and defeated the Zanj Rebellion, an uprising of African slaves that posed a major threat to the caliphate. Later on, Abbasid power gained a new lease on life.
  • Feb 11, 929

    Challenges

    Challenges
    Abd al-Rahman III declares himself caliph in Cordoba, challenging Abbasid and Fatimid claims of authority over Muslims.
  • Dec 12, 940

    Shiite Buyids - The Title and The Overthrew

    Shiite Buyids - The Title and The Overthrew
    Al-Radi (r. 934–940) is often considered the last caliph created the title amir al- umara, “emir of emirs,” for the governor of Iraq. The Shiite Buyids soon took the title and held it as a hereditary position, becoming the de facto rulers of Iraq. Eventually, the Abbasid caliphs became little more than religious figureheads. In the mid-11th century, the Buyids were ousted by the Sunni Seljuq Turks, who conquered Iran, Iraq, Syria, and most of Asia Minor, forming a new and vibrant Islamic Empire.
  • Period: Dec 12, 940 to Aug 27, 1262

    The End Of Abbsid Empire

  • Mar 6, 1040

    Philospher In Particular Field

    Philospher In Particular Field
    Al-Biruni and Abu Nasr Mansur—among many other scholars—made important contributions to geometry and astronomy. Al-Khwarizmi, expanding upon Greek mathematical concepts, developed Algebra (the word “algorithm” is a corruption of his name). Ibn al-Haytham made important contributions to the field of optics, and is generally held to have developed the concept of the scientific method. Although they were contributed in different period.
  • May 4, 1085

    Alfonso VI

    Alfonso VI
    Alfonso VI of Leon-Castile takes control of the city of Toledo.
  • Apr 15, 1086

    Taifa & Yusuf -allegiance

    Taifa & Yusuf -allegiance
    Taifa (petty kingdom) rulers of Granada and Seville invite Almoravid ruler Yusuf ibn Tashufin to send forces from North Africa to prevent further losses to Christian forces. Al-Andalus comes under Almoravid rule.
  • Nov 27, 1095

    Crusade

    Crusade
    Pope Urban II launches the First Crusade.
  • Dec 1, 1152

    Alfonso X

    Alfonso X
    Alfonso X, son of Fernando III, consolidates power in Iberia. Known as Al-Sabio, or “the Wise,” he orders Latin translations of Arabic works on medicine, astronomy, philosophy and other subjects.
  • Sep 13, 1167

    Great Mosque of Seville

    Great Mosque of Seville
    Almohad rulers succeed Almoravids in al-Andalus and build the Great Mosque of Seville.
  • Mar 6, 1212

    Allegiances

    Allegiances
    Combined Christian allies Castile, Aragon, Navarre, and Portugal defeat Almohads in the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. Almohad power in Spain declines, leaving Andalusian cities vulnerable to conquest.
  • Jul 16, 1212

    Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa

    Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa
    The Christian forces of King Alfonso VIII of Castile were joined by the armies of his rivals, Sancho VII of Navarre, Peter II of Aragon and Afonso II of Portugal, in a battle against the Berber Almohad Muslim rulers of the southern half of the Iberian Peninsula. The Caliph al-Nasir led the Almohad army, made up of people from the whole Almohad empire. Christian lost the war and important people was killed.
  • Nov 16, 1238

    Nasrid Dynasty

    Nasrid Dynasty
    The Nasrid dynasty rises to power in Granada.
  • Feb 13, 1258

    Mongol Invasion - The Fall of Bayt Al Hikma (House Of Wisdom)

    Mongol Invasion - The Fall of Bayt Al Hikma (House Of Wisdom)
    The Mongols entered the city of the caliphs, commencing a full week of pillage and destruction. Along with all other libraries in Baghdad, the House of Wisdom was destroyed by the army of Hulagu during the Siege of Baghdad. The books from Baghdad’s libraries were thrown into the Tigris River in such quantities that the river ran black with the ink from the books. Nasir al-Din al-Tusi rescued about 400,000 manuscripts which he took to Maragheh before the siege.
  • Aug 27, 1258

    Mongols Invasion In Baghdad

    Mongols Invasion In Baghdad
    Caliph al-Nasir (r. 1180–1225) to attempt to restore Abbasid power in Iraq. His long reign of forty-seven years allowed him ample time to reconquer Mesopotamia and further develop Baghdad as a center of learning. The Mongols presence that wanted to rule was refused by Caliph al-Mu`tasim (r. 1242–1258) to acknowledge their authority and offered these non-Muslims only insults and threats. Mongol then surrounded Baghdad and captured it. This marks the end of the Abbasid Empire.
  • Oct 19, 1469

    Kingdoms combined

    Kingdoms combined
    Isabel of Castile and Fernando of Aragon marry and combine their kingdoms.
  • Nov 1, 1478

    Inquisition - The removal of Jews and Muslims

    Inquisition - The removal of Jews and Muslims
    The Spanish Inquisition begins, targeting mainly Jews and Muslims. It was intended to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in their kingdoms and to replace the Medieval Inquisition, which was under Papal control.
  • Jan 2, 1492

    Fall of Granada

    Fall of Granada
    Boabdil, the last King of Granada, allies with Isabel and Ferdinand in rebellion against his father, leading to the fall of Granada.
  • Apr 19, 1492

    Battle of Granada

    Battle of Granada
    a final blow to the remaining Muslim territories in Spain. The war was a joint project between Isabella's Crown of Castile and Ferdinand's Crown of Aragon. The war went on for 10 years and in some of the battles there were heavy casualties mostly from the Muslim's side in the end Muhammad XII the commander surrendered to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella through a treaty.