Umayyads

Umayyad dynasty and Abbasid Dynasty and Muslim in Spain

  • Jun 16, 661

    Muawiyah I becomes the first Caliph of Umayyad Caliphate

    Muawiyah I becomes the first Caliph of Umayyad Caliphate
    Muawiyah became the Caliph after Hasan ibn Ali stepped down. The reason why Hasan ibn Ali stepped down was because he didn't want another Fitnah or a civil war to break out between the Muawiyah and the Rashudin. To prevent this they made a treaty and in that treaty Hasan ibn Ali ceded the Caliphate to Muawiyah.
  • Period: Jun 16, 661 to May 19, 750

    Umayyad Dynasty

  • Period: Jun 17, 661 to Apr 27, 680

    1st Caliph Muawiyah Caliph

  • Nov 23, 661

    Muawiyah moves the capital to Damascus

    Muawiyah  moves the capital to Damascus
    One of the earliest, and most important, changes the Abbasids made was to move the capital of the Islamic empire from the old Rashidun power base of Medinah to a new city—Damascus. Damascus would soon be economically beneficial for the Umayyads since its the capital and has one of the most amout of trade happening throughout the Empire.
  • Period: Apr 15, 674 to Sep 17, 678

    Siege of Constantinople

    The Muslims failed to capture Constantinople this was becasue the Byzantine introduced Greek fire which was a weapon used in Naval battles
  • Apr 27, 680

    Death of Muawiyah I

    Death of Muawiyah I
    Muawiyah died in Damascus in 680 age 78 years old. Before Muawiyah died he made his son the next Caliph, Yazid bin Muawiyah which caused problems because according to the treaty which Hasan ibn Ali and Muawiayh signed it said that Muawiyah has no right to nominate anyone for Caliph and that the rule would be handed back to Hasan ibn Ali and then the Shura Council would decide who should be the next Caliph.
  • Apr 28, 680

    2nd Caliph Yazid bin Muawiyah

    2nd Caliph Yazid bin Muawiyah
    Muawiyah not realizing he broke the treaty, he gave his son Yazid bin Muawiyah the throne to rule the Ummayad Caliphate.
  • Period: Apr 28, 680 to Nov 11, 683

    2nd Caliph Yazid bin Muawiyah

  • Oct 10, 680

    Battle of Karbala

    Battle of Karbala
    This was an important battle because people knew that Muawiyah broke the treaty by making his son the Caliph. So Iman Hussein (the Prophet's grandson) set out for Iraq in order to be Caliph, this threatened the government of Yazid ibn Muawiayh. Yazid bin Muawiyah didn't want to lose his government so he sent out his army and killed Hussein and the rest of the group in Karbala. To this date, Shia's and Sunni's mourn this trajic event.
  • May 19, 683

    Battle of al-Harrah part 1

    Battle of al-Harrah part 1
    The battle of Harrah was a massacre of people in Medinah and Makkah. The battle was between the forces of Yazid bin Muawiyah and Abdullah bin Zubayr. After the battle of Karbala in which the Prophet's grandson died, Abdullah bin Zubayr decided to go against Yazid bin Muawiyah and swear to refuse allegiance to Yazid bin Muawiyah. Abdullah bin Zubayr then launched an insurgency in the Hijaz. When the news reached Yazid, he launched 10,000 forces on Makkah and Medinah.
  • May 19, 683

    Battle of Harrah Part 2

    Battle of Harrah Part 2
    It is unknown whether Abdullah bin Zubayr survived or not. In the end of the battle the Ummayad army won and looted the cities of Makkah and Medinah for 3 days in a row and killed a lot of innocent civilians. The death toll for the civilians and the people who died in the battle were 11,000.
  • Nov 11, 683

    Death of Yazid bin Muawiyah

    Death of Yazid bin Muawiyah
  • Period: Apr 12, 685 to Oct 8, 705

    Caliph Abd- al Malik ibn Marwan

  • Jun 13, 691

    Dome of Rock was built

    Dome of Rock was built
    The Muslims built the Dome of Rock with its beautiful design and golden dome to present the Islamic culture along with their religion
  • Nov 23, 700

    Unified the coinage in the Empire

    Unified the coinage in the Empire
    Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan as the caliph unified the coin system so that people can use the same currency everywhere. He unified the system because there were many different currencies that were begin used and it was hard to keep up with the conversion rate. So then he proceeded to make a unify coin system
  • Period: Oct 8, 705 to Feb 23, 715

    Caliph Al Walid bin Abd al-Malik

  • Nov 23, 712

    Indus River under control of the Umayyad

    Indus River under control of the Umayyad
    In the east, Islamic armies after continues years of invasion, they made it as far as the Indus River in 712. Under Walid, the Caliphate stretched from the Iberian Peninsula to what is now modern day India.
  • Sep 11, 714

    Conquering Small States

    Conquering Small States
    In 712, Musa ibn Nusayr the governor of North Africa follows Tariq ibn Ziyad and takes Medina-Sidonia, Seville and Mértola. The next year, 713, Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa who is the governor of Andalus, takes Jaen, Murcia, Granada, Sagunto. In 714, first Umayyad campaigns in the lower Ebro valley and southeast part of the Iberian Peninsula were held he takes Evora, Santarem and Coimbra.
  • Period: Feb 23, 715 to Sep 22, 717

    Sulayman ibn Abd Malik

  • Period: Sep 22, 717 to Feb 4, 720

    Caliph Umar II

  • Nov 23, 718

    Labor Rule

    Labor Rule
    Umar II made a law that said that unpaid labor was now illegal throughout the empire which was good becasue it allowed the poor people to make money and buy food for their families and also afford healthcare and also education for their children.
  • May 19, 719

    Taxation Law

    Taxation Law
    Umar put into practice a new system that exempted all Muslims, regardless of their heritage, from the jizya tax. He also added some safeguards to the system to make sure that mass conversion to Islam would not cause the collapse of the finances of the Umayyad government
  • Sep 15, 719

    Seized of Barcelona and the city of Narbonne

     Seized of Barcelona and the city of Narbonne
    The Al-Andalus general governor al-Samh seized those two provinces despite locals resistance and fighting the Muslim Army. After some time of fighting, the locals surrendered under the condition of Jizya.
  • Feb 7, 720

    Umar II is poisoned

    Umar II is poisoned
    His reforms in favor of the people greatly angered the nobility of the Umayyads, and they would eventually bribe a servant into poisoning his food. Umar learned of this on his death bed and pardoned the culprit, collecting the punitive payments he was entitled to under Islamic law but depositing them in the public treasury
  • Period: Jan 26, 724 to Feb 6, 743

    Caliph Hisham bin Abd al-Malik

  • Jul 16, 724

    Day of Thirst battle

    Day of Thirst battle
    This battle was fought between the Umayyad Caliphate and the Turgesh Khagnate and the Taxanonian Allies. The battle was dreadful for the Muslims and they lost to the Turgesh.
  • Nov 23, 728

    Capture of a fort in Samalu in Cilicia

    Capture of a fort in Samalu in Cilicia
    Hisham's son Mu'awiyah ibn Hisham was another Arab commander in the almost annual raids against the Byzantine Empire. In A.H. 110 he took the fort of Samalu in Cilicia.
  • Dec 9, 730

    Battle of Marj Ardabil

    Battle of Marj Ardabil
    The battle was between the Khazar Khagnate and the Umayyad Caliphate. The Ummayad Caliphate lost this battle and allowed the Khazar to occupy Ardabil
  • Jul 18, 732

    Battle of the River Garonne

    Battle of the River Garonne
    This battle was between the Umayyad's leader, Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi between the Aquitanian led by Duke Odo of Aquitaine. The reason behind the fight of the betrayal of Munuza towards Ummayad. Munuza's death was unsure and assuming he died, Ummayad's forces pushed through and victoried at Bordeaux. Later on, Abdul Rahman engaged Odo's forces on the Garonne River and defeated Odo. Then, Charles formed an allegiance with Odo's army and defeated Umayyad armies.
  • Oct 10, 732

    Battle of Tours

    Battle of Tours
    The battle of Tours was between Francia and Umayyad Caliphate. The result of the battle was a desicive Frankish voctory becasue they were able to kill the leader of the Muslim Army Abd Ar-Rahman Al Ghafiqi.
  • Period: Dec 4, 744 to Jan 25, 750

    Marwan II

  • Apr 9, 747

    Rebellion

    Rebellion
    A major rebellion broke out against the Umayyad Caliphate. The major cause of the revolution was the increasing gap between the outlying peoples of the Caliphate and the Damascus-based capital. The Umayyad-appointed governors of the Caliphate's provinces were extremely corrupt, unreliable and untrustworthy and interested only in personal gain
  • Jan 25, 750

    Battle of the Zab

    Battle of the Zab
    The battle of Zab was between the Abbasid Caliphate and the Umayyad Caliphate. The Umayyad Caliphate had a bigger army of 150,000 while the Abbasid had 35,000. The Abbasids won by using the spear wall technique which they learned from the Syrians. This technique helped the Abbasids win the war and also Collapse the Umayyad Caliphate. This battle brought an end to the Umayyad Caliphate
  • Period: Jan 25, 750 to Feb 10, 1258

    Abbasid Caliphate

  • Period: Jan 25, 750 to Nov 25, 1492

    Muslim in Spain

  • Period: Jan 25, 750 to Jun 10, 754

    1st Caliph of Abbasid Caliphate As-Saffah

  • Nov 24, 750

    Abd Al-Rahman

    Abd Al-Rahman
    Abd Al-Rahman survived and he escaped to the province of Al-Andalus where he started a new form of goverbment
  • Sep 21, 751

    Battle of Talas

    Battle of Talas
    Battle of Talas was a military engagement between the Arab Abbasid Caliphate along with their ally the Tibetan Empire against the Chinese Tang Dynasty. The battle happened in a valley met off the Talas River to gain control of the Syr Darya region of central Asia. The result of the battle was Abbasid Caliphate and Tibetan victory. The victory happened because, after several days of combat, the Karluks defected from the Tang side to the Abbasid side which mad the Abbasid Army defeat the Tang.
  • Period: Jun 10, 754 to Oct 6, 775

    2nd Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate Al Mansur

  • Sep 13, 755

    Arranged to Assassinate Abu Muslim

    Arranged to Assassinate Abu Muslim
    Abu Muslim was a loyal free man from the eastern Iranian province of Khorasan who had led the Abbasid forces to victory over the Umayyads during the Third Fitna.The assassination seems to have been made to preclude a power struggle in the empire
  • Nov 24, 755

    Umayyad Rises again in Spain

    Umayyad Rises again in Spain
    This is an important decision, and therefore an important event, as it would be here that Muslims would construct the Great Mosque of Cordova. It would also become the hub of the Golden Islamic Age of Spain.
  • Nov 15, 762

    Moved the Capital

    Moved the Capital
    One of the earliest, and most important, changes the Abbasids made was to move the capital of the Islamic empire from the old Umayyad power base of Damascus to a new city—Baghdad. Baghdad was founded in 762 by al-Mansur on the banks of the Tigris River.
  • Nov 9, 765

    Baghdad becomes one of the biggest cities in the world

    Baghdad becomes one of the biggest cities in the world
    Baghdad grew quickly with encouragement from the Abbasid state, and it was soon the largest city in the world. Art, poetry, and science flourished. The Abbasids learned from the Chinese the art of making paper. Cheap and durable. The paper that they made was used in literature sending and also sending messages.
  • Period: Oct 6, 775 to Jul 24, 785

    3rd Caliph Al-Mahdi bi-'llah

  • Period: Jul 24, 785 to Nov 15, 809

    5th Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate Harun al-Rashid

    Harun al-Rashid is one of history’s greatest patrons of the arts and sciences. Under his rule, Baghdad became the world’s most important center for science, philosophy, medicine, and education. The massive size of the caliphate meant that it had contact and shared borders with many distant empires, so scholars at Baghdad could collect, translate, and expand upon the knowledge of other civilizations.
  • Aug 24, 785

    Cordoba Mosque

    Cordoba Mosque
    Abd al-Rahman gave most power to Arab Umayyads, enforced Islam as the official religion, and around 785 began construction on the Great Mosque of Cordoba. This mosque, known in Spanish as La Mezquita, would become the architectural centerpiece of the capital, and of the kingdom.
  • May 17, 786

    New ways of Farming

    New ways of Farming
    The people’s method of irrigation experience new and innovation techniques were invented, including the use of mills and turbines. This allowed farming to become easier and allow trade, import, export much quicker. There were trades such as cotton, rice, and sugar from India, sorghum from Africa, and fruits from China.
  • Nov 24, 796

    Moves Court and Government to Ar-Raqqa

    Moves Court and Government to Ar-Raqqa
    Harun decided to move his court and the government to Ar Raqqah. Several reasons might have influenced the decision to move to ar-Raqqa. It was close to the Byzantine border. The communication lines via the Euphrates to Baghdad and via the Balikh river to the north and via Palmyra to Damascus were excellent.
  • Period: Sep 27, 813 to Aug 7, 833

    7th Caliph Al Ma'mun

  • Apr 26, 830

    Discovery of Algebra

    Discovery of Algebra
    Muhammad bin Musa Al-Khwarizmi (also known as "Father of Algebra" ) a mathematician develops work in the field of mathematics-algebra. He writes the Kitab al-Jem wa’l Trafiq bi Hisab al-Hind, displaying addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, as well as the square root.
  • Nov 9, 830

    House of Wisdom

    House of Wisdom
    The House of Wisdom was a library, an institute for translators, and in many ways an early form of university. The House of Wisdom hosted Muslim and non-Muslim scholars who sought to translate and gather the cumulative knowledge of human history in one place, and in one language—Arabic. It also hosted scholars that revolutionized math, geometry, astronomy, optics, and agriculture
  • Nov 24, 830

    The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing

    The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing
    This was a mathematical book written by Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi. The book was written with the encouragement of Caliph al-Ma'mun as a popular work on calculation and is replete with examples and applications to a wide range of problems in trade, surveying and legal inheritance
  • Nov 9, 847

    The Great Mosque of Samarra is completed

    The Great Mosque of Samarra is completed
    The Great Mosque of Samarra in Iraq was completed in 847. It combined the hypostyle architecture of rows of columns supporting a flat base, above which a huge spiralling minaret was constructed.
  • Apr 13, 900

    Ibn Sina (Avicenna)

    Ibn Sina (Avicenna)
    Ibn Sina (Avicenna) differentiates meningitis from other neurologic diseases, describes anthrax and tuberculosis to physicians, discovers urethral drug installation, reviews the fundamentals and rules of hygiene and dietetics. His discovery helped many people throughout the Abbasid Empire with their medical needs.
  • May 21, 900

    Abu Bakr Muhummad ibn Zakariyya ar-Razi

    Abu Bakr Muhummad ibn Zakariyya ar-Razi
    Abu Bakr Muhummad ibn Zakariyya ar-Razi distinguishes smallpox from measles, describes the laryngeal branch of the recurrent nerve, develops mercurial ointments, introduces moist, hot compresses during surgery, examines psychosomatic reactions, and writes Al-Hawi, a medical encyclopedia of 30 volumes.
  • Nov 9, 900

    The Book Of Animals

    The Book Of Animals
    The book of Animals was written by the author named Al-Jahiz. The name of the book was called the al-Hayawan. Al-Hayawan is an encyclopedia of seven volume of anecdotes, poetic descriptions and proverbs describing over 350 varieties of animals. Al-Jahiz made observations in his book that described evolution.
  • Mar 20, 964

    Discovery of the Andromeda Galaxy

    Discovery of the Andromeda Galaxy
    Persian astronomer Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi writing in his Book of Fixed Stars, described a nebulous spot in the Andromeda constellation, the first definitive reference to what we now know is the Andromeda Galaxy, the nearest spiral galaxy to our galaxy which is the Milky Way.
  • May 19, 1000

    Hospital Law

    Hospital Law
    Before the law was passed hospitals were built in most major cities. Medical facilities traditionally closed each night, but by the 10th-century when the laws were passed to keep hospitals open 24 hours a day, and hospitals were forbidden to turn away patients who were unable to pay. Eventually, charitable foundations were formed to support hospitals, as well as schools. This money supported free medical care for all citizens.
  • Nov 9, 1021

    Book of Optics

    Book of Optics
    bn al-Haytham (Alhazen) used experimentation to obtain the results in his Book of Optics . He combined observations, experiments and rational arguments to support his intromission theory of vision. He was one of the earliest pioneers of the Scientific Method. This helped Ibn al-Haytham to make the first lense in world history.
  • Nov 16, 1078

    The Book of Unknown Arcs of a Sphere

    The Book of Unknown Arcs of a Sphere
    In trigonometry, Ibn Muʿadh al-Jayanti introduced the general Law of sines in his The book of unknown arcs of a sphere. This formula relates the lengths of the sides of any triangle to the sines of its angles. Throught his book it helped all builders and mathmaticians untill today
  • Nov 27, 1095

    The First Crusade

    The First Crusade
    The Pope calls out for the First Crusade. The First Crusade was about conquering Jerusalem and the Crusades did that sucsessfully
  • Nov 24, 1187

    Re-Capture Jerusalem

    Re-Capture Jerusalem
    The city of Jerusalem was taken back by the great General Saladin. Trade still continued East and West. Through these trading exchanges, was the oppurunity that the learning of Muslim scholars in the Middle East was shared with Europe.
  • Feb 10, 1258

    Sack of Baghdad

    Sack of Baghdad
    In 1258 the Mongol Army under the control of Hulagu Khan sieged the city. They captured the city and sacked it. They trampled the caliph to death and completely destroyed the city. They killed between 100,000 and a million people, destroyed all the books of the House of Wisdom and other libraries, burned down all the great monuments of the city, and left
  • Apr 19, 1492

    The Battle of Grenada

    The Battle of Grenada
    The battle of Grenada was a final blow to the remaining Muslim territories in Spain. The war was a joint project between Isabella's Crown of Castile and Ferdinand's Crown of Aragon. The bulk of the troops and funds for the war came from Castile. The war went on for 10 years and in some battles there were heavy casualties mostly from the Muslim's side in the end Muhammad XII the commander surrendered to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella through a treaty.
  • Overthrew of Umayyad Dynasty

    Overthrew of Umayyad Dynasty
    The overthrew of Umayyad Dynasty resulted them to become increasingly unpopular. The Umayyads favored Syrian
    Arabs over other Muslims and treated mawali (Persians), newly converted Muslims, as second- class citizens. Other Muslims were angry with the Umayyads for turning the caliphate into a hereditary dynasty as they believed that a single family should not hold power. Those Muslims united undeer Abbasids.