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Rise and Spread of Islam

  • 570

    Birth of Muhammad was born in Mecca present day Saudi Arabia.
    Raised by his uncle Abu Talib, along with his grandfather. His mom and grandfather died when he ws still a child.
  • Period: 570 to Jan 1, 632

    Life of Muhammad

  • Jan 1, 610

    Muhammad's First Revelation

    Muhammad had his revelation from Allah in ''Cave of Hira,'' located on Mt. Hira. He frequently meditate there and one day recieved message from an archangel, Gabriel, the same angel that approached Mary, mother of Christ. He was then given revelations from Allah, which is written in the Quran.
  • Jan 1, 622

    Flight to Medina

    Muhammad fled from Mecca to Medina in 633 C.E. due to threats by the Ummayyad and other clans in Mecca. His new religion cause concerns to religious leaders in Mecca, they feared that they would lose wealth and power. Medina welcomed him, they needed help with their quarrels. Here, he grew popularity for his religion.
  • Jan 1, 630

    Muhammad's Triumph

    Muhammad and Medina fought the Umayyad clan, it started around 627, and ended several years later in 630 with the victory of Muhammad and Medina. They signed a treaty with the Ummayyad and was able to return the Ka'Ba.
  • Jan 1, 632

    Muhammad's Death

    Sudden death. However, he managed to spread Islam all over the Arabian Peninsula, united them. The Umayyads became the dominating force in the Islamic community, resulted in arab empire under their rule.
  • Period: Jan 1, 632 to Jan 1, 661

    Era of Rightly Guided Caliphs

  • Nov 10, 632

    First Caliph; Abu Bakr (632- 634)

    First Caliph; Abu Bakr (632- 634)
    The first of the four rightly guided Caliphs. He was Muhammad's closest companion. But he was rejected by the Umayyads. During his caliphate, he had many victories against the Romans.
  • Period: Jan 1, 633 to Jan 1, 644

    Muslim Conquest of Persia

    Persia falls to Arabs after battle of Kadisiya, after Arab sacked Ctesiphon. Arab continue to acheive victory over the Persian forces at Nahavand in 641. apture Isfahan in 642 and Herat in 643. For a century, Persia became part of Umayyad.
  • Jan 1, 634

    Second Caliph; Umar (634- 644)

    Second Caliph; Umar (634- 644)
    Succeded Abu Bakr, the vast expansion of Islam was Umar's most notable feature of his caliphate (Arabia, Egypt, Iraq, Palestine, and Iraq). Was assasinated in 644.
  • Jan 1, 644

    Third Caliph; Uthman (644-656)

    Third Caliph; Uthman (644-656)
    Most notable contribution is complete and authorative text of the Quran. First 6 years of the caliphate were peaceful, followed by rebellions. Jews and Magians conspired against him, he was assassinated in656, he was unpopular because he supported the Umayyads.
  • Jan 1, 650

    Quran Compiled

    Quran Compiled
    The Quran was compiled by various people and caliph such as Abu Bakr, and process. Zayd bin Thabit and Umar ibn Al-Khattab verified each verse by memory. The complete Quran was passed down from Bakr to Uthman, then to Uthman's daughter Hafsah.
  • Jan 1, 656

    Fourth Caliph; Ali (656-661)

    Fourth Caliph; Ali (656-661)
    Accepted becaue he was the cousin of Muhammad. Got rid of all governers and replaced new ones. Hijaz, became troubled that he moved the capital to Iraq, Muawi govt. rebelled against him. Assassinated during prayer in a mosque.
  • Period: Jan 1, 656 to Jan 1, 661

    Civil Wars

    Civil War broke out after death of Uthman and Ali's attempt to resign. Some obliged,others refused, and began to rebell. Most notable amoung the latter - Muawiya bin Abu Sufyan(Umayyad Governer), he was declared caliph in Damascus.
  • Period: Jan 1, 657 to Jan 1, 750

    Umayyad Caliphate

    Rule was divided between two branches of family: the Sufyānids(661–684), descendants of Abū Sufyān; and the Marwanids (684–750), Marwān I ibn al-Hakam. Syrian army became basis of strenghth, created united empire.
  • Period: Jan 1, 711 to

    Conquest of Spain

    Muslim invaded and within 7 years, conquered the Iberian peninsula. One of the greatest Muslim civilizations. The people did not like the harsh condition of Visigoth rulers, this gave Muslims an advantage. The heartland was Southern Spain or Andulusia.
  • Period: Jan 1, 750 to Jan 1, 1258

    Abbasid Caliphate

    The name camer from its ancestor al- Abbas; the uncle of Muhammad. In 750 Abbasid defeated the Umayyads and moved capital to Baghdad. All caliphs were descended from Abbas; member of Quraysh of Mecca, uncle of Muhammad. Caliphs were at first religious and political leader, but later became puppets in hands of Turkish soilder. Philosophy, medicine, math, and other science flourished during this time; Hellenistic.
  • Jan 1, 756

    Baghdad Established as Capital of Abbasid Caliphate

    Baghdad Established as Capital of Abbasid Caliphate
    Abbasid overthrew the Umayyad in 750. By moving the capital, they're supporting the Malawi, the non- Arab Muslim convert. They made them as equal as Arab convert, unlike under the Umayyad rule, only Arab Muslim is seem as 1st class.
  • Jan 1, 1099

    Crusader Seize Jerusalem

    Crusader Seize Jerusalem
    Happened during the 1st crusade. Christian knights captured Jerusalem in 7 weeks of siege and massacure of Muslim and Jew population. Few weeks later, an Egyptian army challenged this claim, and their defeat outnumbered Christians and 5 small Christian states were set up in the region under rule of crusades.
  • Jan 1, 1206

    Delhi Sultanate established in India

    Delhi Sultanate established in India
    Mohammad Ghori captured Delhi defeating Prithviraj. This established series of rulers and the dynasty was called the slave dynasty because the rulers were military slaves. They faced constant threats from North West and had internal politics within nobles. Under Khilji dynasty most of Soth India was conquered. Agriculture were its main source, but due to instability, peasants suffered greatly.
  • Jan 1, 1258

    Mongols sack Baghdad; formal end of Abbasid Caliphate

    Mongols sack Baghdad; formal end of Abbasid Caliphate
    Mongke became khan of Mongols and migrated to the middle east in 10 years Mongols had overrun Mesopotamia and the city surrendered. With that the mongols stole and killed the people of the city.
  • Jan 1, 1324

    Mansa Musa Pilgrimage to Mecca

    Mansa Musa Pilgrimage to Mecca
    He was the emperor of Mali and met the rulers of the Middle East and Europe in his journey. He brought much gold with him and gave it away destroying the country’s economies. When he returned he invited Arab scholars, architects,and gov. bureaucrats. He built many mosques and schools.
  • Jan 1, 1442

    Christian Re- Conquest of Spain completed; end of Muslim Spain

    Christian Re- Conquest of Spain completed; end of Muslim Spain
    The Christian Reconquest forced Spanish Muslims to go south, and the kingdom of Granada established as the last refuge of the Moorish civilization. The Granada flourished, but internal conflict, and strength of the Spanish monarchy led to the end of Moorish civilization. On January 2, 1492, King Boabdil surrendered Granada to the Spanish forces.
  • Jan 1, 1453

    Ottoman Empire conquers Contantinople, end of Byzantine Empire

    Ottoman Empire conquers Contantinople, end of Byzantine Empire
    The Ottoman Empire was one of the most powerful of the empires. Constantinople was conquered by Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II’s army. The city had been attacked before but was protected by the wall that Mehmed himself had designed. But Sultan Mehmed, II fired cannons on the wall for several weeks.
  • Jan 1, 1526

    Munghal Empire established in India

    Munghal Empire established in India
    The Munghal Empire ruled a large part of Northern India from 16-18th century. had an administrative organization which was stable for 7 generations. was powerless until the middle of the 19th century.
  • Emergence of Sufisim 800-1000

    Emergence of Sufisim 800-1000
    They were mystic Muslim (Ascetic movement). Seeking divine truth adn love through god. Their name came from the wool garment they wore as rejection to worldly things. Stressed control of mind, mystic insight, and loss of self in union with god.
  • Period: to

    Emergence of Sunnis/ Shi'i Split

    Occured shortly after Ali's death, and Umayyad's take over. In 680, soilders of second Umayyad caliph killed Ali's son. The Shi'a refused to be ruled by the Umayyads, Sunnis triumphed politically; but Shi'a continued to look to the Imams(Blood descendants of Muhammad) as their religious leader.