Jan 1, 610
Muhammad 610-613 C.E.Muhammad
-Prophet of Islam
-born c. 570 to Banu Hashim clan of Quraysh tribe in Mecca
-Significance: His revelations from Gabriel made him to spread his new faith called Islam. He would add his recitations in the sacred text of Islam called the Qu'ran. His teachings would also spread to his followers and other people from different regions or civilizations.
Jan 2, 610
-First wife of Muhammad
-Widow of a wealthy merchant
-Significance: Despite of the fact that Muhammad was upset in the fact that he saw a demon in his vision, she was the one who assured him that he saw the angel, Gabriel. She was the first believer of Islam and was the one who encouraged him to spread his faith.
Jan 3, 610
-Recitations of revelations received by Muhammad
-Holy book of Islam
Significance: It was the book of divine guidance revealed from God to Muhammad through the angel Gabriel over a period of 23 years. The beliefs and revelations in the Qu'ran would spread its influence to many regions in both ancient and modern times.
<a href='http://http://www.allahsquran.com/quran_source_of_guidance.php' >click here<
Jan 4, 622
-Journey of Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina
-Flight to Medina marks the first year of the Islamic calendar.
Significance: Flight to the city of Medina was an important step or the turning point in the development of Islam. Resulting from or during the hijra, Muhammad gained new strengths by having many new followers and spreading his new faith quickly which would also lead to his victory over the Quraysh tribe and his enemies in Mecca.
Jan 5, 629
Muhammad's Return to Meccaclick hereMuhammad's Return to Mecca
-Muhammad returned with his followers to take control of the city of Mecca
-At this time, Muhammad won many bedouin allies and won over the Umayyads and most of the other inhabitants of Mecca to new faith.
Significance: His return to Mecca marked a new faith called Islam and also united the people in Mecca to become part of the umma. His return also brought the destruction idols and the properity of Islam to the Muslims. His return symbolized the end of polytheism.
Jan 6, 632
Abu Bakrclick hereAbu Bakr
-One of Muhammad's earliest converts
-Succeeded Muhammad as first caliph of Islamic community
Significance: His influence made many early Muslims to be converted. He was fiercely devoted to Muhammad's beliefs in Islam. He was recognized by many others to be very brave and wise. His leadership helped ensure the survival of the Islamic empire.
Jan 7, 632
Ridda Warsclick hereRidda Wars 632-633 A.D.
-Wars that followed Muhammad's death
-Was also known as the Wars of Apostasy
-Set of military campaigns against the rebellion of several Arabic tribes against the Caliph Abu Bakr
Significance: The wars resulted in the defeat of rival prophets and some of larger clans. It also restored unity of Islam. It also caused Arabia to be united under the cental authority of Abu Bakr.
Jan 8, 651
Fall of Sasanian Empire of Persiaclick hereFall of Sasanian Empire of Persia
- caused by economic decline, heavy taxation, religious unrest, rigid social stratification, the increasing power of provinicial landholders, and a rapid turnover of rulers.
-During this fall, Muslim warriors broke into the Sasanian heartland.
-Capital was taken, armies were destroyed, and generals were slain.
Significance: Their fall marked Muslim victory and rise of Islamic civilization. The end of the Sassanid empire caused end of Zoroastrianism.
Jun 17, 656
Murder of Uthmanclick hereMurder of Uthman
-Uthman: third caliph and member of Umayyad clan
-murdered by mutinous warriors returning from Egypt
Significance: His death set off the civil war in Islam between followers of Ali and the Umayyad clan. His murder would also be the first factor in the divisions (Sunni and Shia) in Muslim society in which would go on further through generations.
Jul 26, 657
Battle of Siffinclick hereBattle of Siffin July 26-28
-Fought between the forces of Ali and the Umayyads
-Settled by negotiation that led to fragmentation of Ali's party
Significance: The battle of Siffin was the turning point at which the Sunni-Shia split solidified. This battle was also the reason why there were divisions in the Muslim community. For this battle would later result in the hostility between the Sunnis and the Shias.
Jan 11, 680
-Site of defeat and death of Husayn, son of Ali
-Also the place where the Shia rose and invited Ali's son, Husayn to join them and be their leader in which will later result the Battle of Karbala.
Siginificance:Marked beginning of Shi'a resistance to Umayyad caliphate. It later became the most sacred city for Shiite Muslims.
Jan 25, 750
Battle of the River Zabclick hereBattle of the River Zab
-Victory of Abbasids over Umayyads
-Took place on the banks of the Great Zab river in what is now Iraq
Significance: The battle ended with the victory of the Abbasids and the end of Umayyad caliphate. This was the reason why the Abbasids flourish later on. Despite of the loss of Umayyad members, there was one survivor who made his way to Spain and created the new Umayyad dynasty there which would later flourish on.
Jan 13, 786
Harun al-Rashidclick hereHarun al-Rashid
-One of the great Islamic rulers of the Abbasid era
-Fifth Abbasid Caliph
-Patron of art and learning
-He and his court were immortalized in "The Thousand and One Nights."
Significance: His kindness and learning and luxerious lifestyle were what made the Abbasid reign peacefully successful. Under Harun's reign, Baghdad became the most advanced city in the Islamic world. He made Baghdad as a center of arts and learning.
Jan 14, 970
-Regional splinter dynasty of the mid-10th century
-Invaded and captured Baghdad
-Ruled the Abbasid Empire under title of Sultan
-Retained Abbasids as figureheads
Significance: Even though they conquered many lands, they promoted culture and unified language. They did public works and promoted literature, astronomy, medicine, philosophy, and many other branches of knowledge.
Jan 20, 998
Mahmud of Ghazniclick hereMahmud of Ghazni
-Third ruler of Turkish slave dynasty in Afghanistan
-Led invasions of northern India
-Credited with sacking one of wealthiest of Hindu temples in northern India
Significance: He gave Muslims reputation for intolerance and aggression. He spent much of his lifetime fighting against "infidels" such as Hindus and Buddhists whom he viewed them as heretics.
Jan 15, 1071
Seljuk Turksclick hereSeljuk Turks
-Nomadic invaders from central Asia via Persia
-Ruled in name of Abbasid caliphs from mid-11th century
Significance: They were important because of their great victory over the Byzantines. At that time, they destroyed the Byzantine army and took control most of the Asia Minor.They ended the Byzantine Empire. They would later lay the foundations of the Ottoman Empire.
Jan 16, 1099
-Series of military adventures initially launched by western Christians to free Holy Land from Muslims
-Captured Jerusalem and established Christian kingdoms
Significance: They stopped the advance of Islam and made Europe to start the Renaissance through the ideas the Crusaders achieved during their wars with the Muslims.
Jan 18, 1106
-Brilliant Islamic theologian
-Struggled to fuse Greek and Qu'ranic traditions
-Not entirely accepted by ulama
Significance: He was one of the greatest Islamic jurists because the combination of his external and esoteric life through his Sufi experience, his study of philosophy, theology, and above all his genuine heart of a seeker made him a great scholar. In other words, he turned his life crisis into a journey of life learning.
Jan 17, 1187
-Muslim leader in the last decades of the 12th century
-Reconquered most of the crusader outposts for Islam
Significance: He had military success against the invading armies. Overall, he united his Islamic armies under the goal of purging the Holy Land. He was also merciful to his captives. His ability to unite the armed forces brought peace towards his people and allowed him to reconquer Jerusalem.
Jan 19, 1258
-Ruler of the Ilkhan khanate
-Grandson of Chinggis Khan
-Responsible for capture and destruction of Baghdad in 1257
-Suppresed the Ismaili sect and defeated the last Abbasid caliph
Significance: He was well known as the founder of Ilkhan dynasty and subdued the Islamic world by destroying medieval Iranian culture.