Born on Year of the ElephantMuhammad was born in She'eb Banu Hashim in Makkah. It was about 50 days after the failed attempt of Abraha to destroy the Ka'bah. While Amina was pregnant, she dreamt that a light was emitted from her lower body that illuminated the palaces of Syria. Soon after he was born, he was in the care of Haleemah Sa'diya, who noticed an instant increase in blessings in her home.
Growing up with hardshipsAt age 4, Jibril came and opened his chest and washed his heart with zamzam. He was then returend to his mother. At age 6, he lost his mother. His grandfather, Abdul Muttalib, loved him dearly and took care of him. At age 8, his grandfather passed away. At age 12, Bahira (a Christian monk) recognized him as the promised messenger by the signs around him and the seal of prophethood on his back. He warned them to not proceed further with Muhammad and to take him back to Makkah.
A noble characterHe supported Hilf Al-Fudool pact (upholding justice in society) He was a shepherd and learned patience, perseverance, and hardwork. His wisdom was evident when he resolved the dispute over the Black stone. He never worshipped idols and followed the religion of Ibrahim and would go to caves for reflection.
Marriage to KhadijahA wealthy businesswoman, Khadijah, admired his honesty during her dealings with him and she proposed to marry him. She refused marriage proposals from wealthy and elite men from society. They got married and she bore all of his children, except for Ibrahim. They were Qasim, Zaynab, Ruqayya, Umm Khulthoom, Fatimah, Abdullah. All the sons passed away during childrood, while the daughters lived to see their father become a prophet.
Jan 1, 610
1st revelation -Prophethood beginsWhile he was in the cave of Hira, an angel -Jibril -came to him with revelation. The first words were "Read", "Read in the name of your Lord, the Creator. He, Who created man from a clot. Read! And your Lord is the Most Bounteous." Out of fright, he ran to his Khadijah, who comforted him and took him to her cousin, Waraqa bin Nauful, a Christian, who confirmed that he was the promised messenger.
Jul 1, 610
2nd revelationA long time passed after the first revelation and he feared that Allah has abandoned him. Then as he descended the mountain, a voiced called out to him "Muhammad! You are the Prophet of Allah, and I am Jibril." Then he ran to Khadijah and asked her to wrap him with a blanket. Then 1st 5 verses of Surah Al-Muddathir was revealed: O you wrapped in garments! Arise and warn! Magnifiy your Lord, and your clothing purify! Shun idols and false worship! And give not a thing in order to have more....
Jul 3, 610
Mission begins1st revelation: he was appointed Prophethood 2nd revelation: he was entrusted with 2 tasks 1) To arise and warn -to teach people about Allah and to warn them of the consequences of their sins 2) To obey the commands of Allah and act as a model for others. -The surah Muddathir contains instructions and explanation of the basic religious practices ordered in Islam. He began to quietly teach those closest to him. 1st believers: Khadija, Ali ibn Talib, Abu Bakr, Zayd bin Harith, etc. (130ppl)
Oct 1, 610
Dar Al ArqamMuhammad did not stop progressing. He and the believers met at Dar Al-Arqam (house of Arqam near the Ka'bah) secretly to learn the religion and memorize the verses of the Quran.
Jan 1, 613
Open propagation of IslamAllah commanded him to now go public and warn the people for commiting idolary. He went on top of Mount Safa and gathered all the people there. They mentioned that they found him to be most trustworthy and would believe him. Then Muhammad announces to the people to save themselves from the punishment of Hell. He names each tribe and tells them to fear Hell and to obey Allah. His uncle, Abu Lahab, rejected him and cursed at him, and found it unforgivable to choose Islam over family traditions.
Feb 1, 613
Message was rejectedQuraysh tribe began to openly ridicule Islam, and abuse the believers. They called Muhammad, many names like a madman, soothsayer, poet, sorcerer, etc. They would spread lies about Islam and would say that the verses of the Quran are stories from the past, and not divine revelation. They could not accept 3 concepts in Islam: 1) Resurrection on Day of Judgement for accountability
2) Idea of a mortal prophet
3) Concept of one God
Feb 1, 613
Believers were torturedMuslims were tortured and often killed by Quraysh. They were to serve as deterrent for others to accept Islam. But their plans failed. -Bilal bin Rabah -a slave who was thrown on the burning sand with a heavy rock on his chest. But he kept saying "One! One!" signifying one God. -Zinira -a slave girl who was tortured till she became blind. They gloated that their gods turned her blind, but she told them that if Allah wills then her sight will be restored. Next day, Allah restored her sight.
Jan 1, 615
1st Migration to Abyssinia5 yrs after Prophethood -12 men and 4 women journeyed across the Red Sea to Abyssinia, which was ruled by a just Christian king. After 2 months, the Prophet recited Surah Najm. The disbelievers were so overwhelmed by the powerful words that they too prostrated along with him at the end of the Surah. However, they still continued to disbelieve. This news reached Abyssinia, and the believers made their way back to Makkah as they thought Qureysh became Muslims after prostration.
Oct 1, 615
2nd migration to AbyssiniaNow 82-83 men and 18 women journeyed to Abyssinia secretly. Quresh went to King Najashi with lots of gifts and bribery. The King after hearing from both sides, said that the message of Islam is from the same source as Christianity. He would not give the Muslims over to Quresh and that they should take back all the gifts that they had brought for him. Defeated & disgraced, Quresh were now plotting to kill the Prophet. However, they were unsuccessful at every attempt because Allah protected him.
Dec 1, 615
Hamzah & Umar embraces IslamHamzah bin Abdul Mutallib and Umar bin Al-Khattab accepts Islam. This strengthes Islam and Muslims were now able to publicly practice their religion. They preached openly and congregated at the Ka'bah and took revenge on anyone who were abusing them. Thus Umar became known as "Farooq" as one who distinguishes truth from the falsehood.
Dec 1, 615
Boycotting the MuslimsQuresh were bargaining: "You worship our gods for one year and we'll worship your god for the next year." Surah Kafiroon was the response for them. Quresh ridiculed that if they were to be punished then how come Allah has not yet punished them. They asked to hasten their punishment just like previous nations for previous prophets. So the disbelievers plotted to boycott the Muslims. They were not allowed to marry them, nor buy/sell food or things to them, etc. Believers ate leaves and roots.
Jan 1, 618
Boycott endsSome Makkans felt that this treaty for boycotting Muslims were inhumane and so they argued to break the treaty. Meanwhile Allah revealed to Muhammad that this treaty has been eaten up by termites, except the name of Allah remains on the top. Abu Talib mentioned that if Muhammad is right then Quraysh should end the boycott. If Muhammad is wrong then he'll no longer be protected by him. The Prophet's words proved to be true and the boycott ended.
May 1, 618
The year of sorrowThe two most dearest and suppportive people in the Prophet's life -Abu Talib and Khadijah passed away. He had great love for his first wife and would weep just thinking about her. Many years later, Aisha would be jealous of her. After a month, he marries Khadijah and a year later he marries Aisha.
Oct 1, 618
Journey of TaifThe Prophet went to Taif and instead of acceptins his call to Islam, they verbally and physically abused him, until his feet dripped blood. He made dua to Allah that as long as Allah is not angry with him then nothing else matters. The angel of mountains came and asked if the people of Taif should be crushed between 2 hills. But the Prophet was not looking for revenge. He said if Allah wills then their progeny will be Muslims. Also a band of Jinns heard him pray fajr and accepted Islam.
Oct 1, 619
Disbelievers demand miraclesQuresh demanded extravagant signs and miracles to prove his prophethood. They didn't take into consideration all the signs that had happened before. Allah gave the Prophet 2 options:
1) A miracle is shown to them and if they still don't believe then they'll suffer the worst punishment.
2) No miracle will be shown, but the door of repentence and mercy is open for them. The Prophet chose the 2nd option. Nevertheless, Allah showed them a miracle of the moon splitting in half for them.
Oct 18, 620
Night Journey & AscensionThe 2 most significant and remarkable event in the Prophet's life were his Israa (night journey) and Miraaj (ascension). Israa -Allah took him from Kabah in Makkah to Bait Al Maqdis in Jerusalem. He led the prayers with the previous prophets and chose milk over wine when offered the drink. Miraaj -he was taken to 1st level of heavens.
2) Yahya bin Zakhariya & Isa
7) Ibrahim -5x salah was prescribed for believers
Jan 1, 621
1st pledge of Aqabah6 men from Madina came to meet the Prophet during Hajj. They accepted Islam.
The pledge included:
1) Allah is to be worshipped alone
2) They would not commit theft
3) nor fornication
4) nor kill children
5) nor vilify others
6) nor disobey the Prophet Thus Islam spread in Madina.
Jan 1, 623
2nd pledge of AqabahThe pledge included:
1) To worship Allah alone
2) To obey the Prophet
3) To give wealth in good and bad times
4) To enjoin good and forbid evil
5) To serve Allah even when others show contempt
6) To the protect the Prophet Jannah is for those who uphold the pledge. The Prophet chose 12 men who would be responsible for the affairs of the community in Madina. Soon after, Muslims were migrating this safe haven. Umar left Makkah in full view along with 20 men and no one dared to stop him.