Jan 1, 623
Jan 1, 627
Prophet MuhammedMuhammad is the central figure of Islam and widely regarded as its founder by non-Muslims. He is known as the "Holy Prophet" to Muslims, almost all of whom consider him to be the last prophet sent by God to mankind to restore Islam, believed by Muslims to be the unaltered original monotheistic faith of Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets.
Jan 1, 630
Spread of IslamSpread of Islam occured under prophet muhammed. He went within different tribes and preached them personally. He hired many other people who preached and travelled with him in his caravan. He and his companions went accross the midlle east and preached. After his death, the 4 righly guided caliphs took over, and spreaded islam by campaigns.
Jun 8, 632
Death of prophet muhammedProphet Muhammed died on 8th june 632. The 4 rightly guided Caliphs took over him. The people continued to spread the message of Islam by campaigns.
Jun 9, 632
The 4 Righly Guided Caliphs1.These 4 Caliphs took over prophet muhammed after his death.
2.They kept spreading Islam around the area like the Prophet.
3.Many religious and and Economic growths took place during these periods.
4.Many military campaigns took place during this time.
5.Shia group was formed during this period of reign. Image : The Painting of the 4 Caliphs
Jan 1, 644
Trading in Islamic statesTrading enhanced in islamic states when the caliphs took over. Under their influence many new products to be invented. These items were traded with empires around the middle east.
Jan 1, 661
Jan 1, 661
Capital Moves to DmascusMu’awiya, the abassid ruler, emphasized the latter, moved his capital to Damascus in 661 and began to reform the new empire’s administration. Mu’awiya modeled his government’s organization on that of the Byzantine Empire, which had recently ruled the region, even going so far as to hire Christian administrators.
Jan 1, 680
Hussein is AssasinatedAs Hussein, the heir of Yazed, traveled with his family and entourage toward the Iraqi city of Kufa, Yazid’s troops stopped the travelers and demanded that Hussein take an oath of loyalty to Yazid and the Umayyad Dynasty. When Hussein refused to submit, Yazid’s general ordered his soldiers to attack, slaughtering women and children as well as Hussein.
Dec 6, 696
Coins are Being UsedBy standardizing financial weights and measures, Abd al-Malik ensured that trade would flow smoothly across his vast lands. Abd al-Malik made another significant change when he ended the practice of featuring the ruler’s image on coins, and instead used only text, notably verses from the Qu’ran.
Jan 1, 732
The Battle of ToursThe Umayyad expansion into Europe was stopped in the west by Charles Martel and his Frankish forces at the Battle of Tours in 732. Umayyad dominance in the east was challenged by a rising faction, the Abbasids, who joined others opposing the empire’s secular emphasis.
Image : A map of the Battle of Tours
Jan 1, 750
Reign of AbassidsThe Abbasids brought down the Umayyads in 750 and sought to kill as many Umayyad family members as possible to avoid its later resurgence. One famous Umayyad who escaped was Abd al Rahman. He fled westward, finally making it to his family’s distant territory in Spain, where he established a western Umayyad dynasty that lasted another three hundred years.
Jan 1, 750
Muslim Empire : SpainMuslim Spain (750-1492)
1. Cordoba established as Abd al Rahman’s capital
2. Construction began on the Great Mosque of Cordoba
3. Death of Maimonides
4. Completion of the Alhambra Palace in Granada
5. End of Muslim rule in Spain
Jan 2, 750
The Rule of the Abbasids
Jan 8, 750
Abbasids take control of the UmayyadsIn the 740s, a Persian-Arab coalition from Khorasan, in eastern Iran, challenged the Umayyad dynasty and by 750, seized power over Muslim lands. The Umayyads had been based in Syria and were influenced by its Byzantine architecture and administration. In contrast, the Abbasids moved the capital to Baghdad in 762
Jan 1, 753
Capital Changed to BaghdadThe Abbasids moved the capital to Baghdad in 762 and, although the leaders were Arab, administrators and cultural influence were primarily Persian. This eastward shift allowed some independent dynasties to form in the west, such as the Spanish Umayyad and later the Egyptian Fatimids.
Image : The round city of Baghdad "illustration"
Jan 1, 755
New Capital at CordobaAbd al-Rahman made his way to Spain within five years, mustered support of the Umayyad governors and generals still in the region, and established a capital in the city of Cordoba in 755.
Jan 1, 785
The great Mosque of CordobaDuring his reign, Abd al-Rahman gave most power to Arab Umayyads, enforced Islam as the official religion, and around 785 began construction on the Great Mosque of Cordoba. This mosque, known in Spanish as La Mezquita, would become the architectural centerpiece of the capital, and of the kingdom. One of the building’s most distinctive features is the prayer hall. Its high ceiling is supported by a forest of columns and arcades, decorated in red and white.
Jan 1, 1055
Seljuq Turks take control of CordobaIn 1055, Seljuq Turkmen who had gradually moved into Abbasid territory, took control of Baghdad. Their leader, Tugrul Bey, forced the Abbasid caliph to name him sultan. From that point, the empire was ruled in name by the Abbasids, but in practice by the Seljuq. The Seljuq expanded westward, defeating the Byzantines in Turkey and even taking control of Jerusalem.
Image: Illustration of the war in Cordoba
Jan 1, 1096
The CRUSADESThe Seljuq expanded westward, defeating the Byzantines in Turkey and even taking control of Jerusalem. These challenges to Christian rule led the pope to call the first crusade in 1096. Christian knights seized and held Jerusalem until 1187, when the city was retaken by the great Muslim general, Saladin. Europeans maintained a presence in the region until the Crusades ended in 1204 and in spite of the conflict.
Image : Illustration of a Christian Soldier
Jan 1, 1204
Moses Maimonides diesMoses Maimonides was a brilliant doctor, rabbi and philosopher. He lived in Spain and North Africa, and finally died in Egypt in 1204. The greatest architectural achievement of this later period is the Alhambra, a palace in Granada, begun in the 11th century, but fully decorated and completed in the 14th century
Jan 1, 1258
The Invasion of the MongolsThe creativity that had flowed from Baghdad for four centuries came to a crashing halt in 1258, when the Mongol invasion reached Mesopotamia. The conquerors destroyed the city of Baghdad, burning its palaces and its houses of learning. Although the Mongols would eventually convert to Islam and foster their own cultural achievements, the golden age of the Abbasid dynasty had come to a close.
Jan 1, 1350
Alhmabra in Granada is CompletedThe Alhambra, the complete Arabic form of which was Qalat Al-Hamra, is a palace and fortress complex located in Granada, Andalusia, Spain made by the great architect Moses Maimonides.
Jan 1, 1492
Muslim Spain endsThe Reconquista is the period of history of the Iberian Peninsula spanning approximately 770 years between the Islamic conquest of Hispania in 710 and the fall of the last Islamic state in Iberia at Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492. The Reconquista ended immediately before the European re-discovery of the Americas—the "New World"—which ushered in the era of the Portuguese and Spanish colonial empires.