Islam1

Islamic History

  • 570

    The Birth of Muhammad

    The Birth of Muhammad
    Muhammad ibn Abd Allah was born in the trading and pilgrimage city of Mecca, a small but bustling commercial center in the northwestern part of the Arabian Peninsula, around the year 570. He was was a member of the Banu Hashim, one of the town's Arab clans
  • Period: 570 to

    Islam

  • Jun 27, 610

    First Revelation

    First Revelation
    Muhammad receives first revelation at Mt. Hira, near Mecca, and begins career as a prophet.
  • Jul 27, 622

    The Year Of Hijra

    The Year Of Hijra
    After enduring persecution in Mecca, Muhammad and his followers migrate to the nearby town of Yathrib (later to be known as Medina), where the people there accepted Islam. This marks the "hijrah" or "emigration," and the beginning of the Islamic calendar. In Medina, Muhammad establishes an Islamic state based on the laws revealed in the Quran and the inspired guidance coming to him from God. Eventually he begins to invite other tribes and nations to Islam.
  • Jul 27, 630

    Control of Mecca

    Control of Mecca
    Muhammad returns to Mecca with a large number of his followers. He enters the city peacefully, and eventually all its citizens accept Islam. The prophet clears the idols and images out of the Kaaba and rededicates it to the worship of God alone. Muhammad wins control of Mecca.
  • Feb 7, 633

    Muhammad Dies

    Muhammad Dies
    Muhammad dies after a prolonged illness. The Muslim community elects his father-in-law and close associate, Abu Bakr, as caliph, or successor.
  • Jul 30, 638

    Muslims Enter

    Muslims Enter
    Muslims enter the area north of Arabia, known as "Sham," including Syria, Palestine, Lebanon and Iraq.
  • Jul 29, 641

    Entering Egypt

    Entering Egypt
    Muslims enter Egypt and rout the Byzantine army. Muslims consider their conquest as the liberation of subjugated people, since in most instances they were under oppressive rule.
  • Jul 28, 655

    Islam Begins

    Islam Begins
    Islam begins to spread throughout North Africa.
  • Jul 17, 661

    righteous caliphs

    righteous caliphs
    Imam Ali is killed, bringing to an end the rule of the four "righteous caliphs": Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali. This also marks the beginning of the Umayyad rule.
  • Jul 16, 700

    Raiding of Sciliy

    Raiding of Sciliy
    Muslims from Pamntelleria raid the island of Sicily.
  • Jul 15, 711

    Entering spain

    Entering spain
    Muslims enter Spain in the west and India in the east. Eventually almost the entire Iberian Peninsula is under Islamic control. With the further conquest of Egypt, Spain and North Africa, Islam included all of the Persian empire and most of the old Roman world under Islamic rule. Muslims began the conquest of Sindh in Afghanistan.
  • Jul 19, 711

    Battle of Guadalete

    Battle of Guadalete
    Tariq ibn Ziyad kills King Rodrigo (or Roderic), Visigoth ruler of Spain, at the Guadalete River in the south of the Iberian peninsula. Tariq ibn Ziyad had landed at Gibraltar with 7,000 Muslims at the invitation of heirs of the late Visigoth King Witica (Witiza) who wanted to get rid of Rodrigo (this group includes Oppas, the bishop of Toledo and primate of all Spain, who happens to be the brother of the late king Witica). Ziyad, however, refuses to turn control of the region back over to the h
  • Jul 15, 732

    Battle Of Tours

    Battle Of Tours
    With perhaps 1,500 soldiers, Charles Martel halts a Muslim force of around 40,000 to 60,000 cavalry under Abd el-Rahman Al Ghafiqi from moving farther into Europe. Many regard this battle as being decisive in that it saved Europe from Muslim control. Gibbon wrote: "A victorious line of march had been prolonged above a thousand miles from the rock of Gibraltar to the banks of the Loire; the repetition of an equal space would have carried the Saracens to the confines of Poland and the Highlands of
  • Jul 13, 750

    The Abbasids

    The Abbasids
    The Abbasids assume control of the Islamic world (except Spain, which falls under the control of a descendant of the Umayyad family) and moved the capital to Baghdad in Iraq. The Abbasid Caliphate would last until 1258.
  • Jul 13, 850

    Perfectus

    Perfectus
    Perfectus, a Christian priest in Muslim Cordova, is executed after he refuses to retract numerous insults he made about the Prophet Muhammed. Numerous other priests, monks, and laity would follow as Christians became caught up in a zest for martyrdom.
  • Jul 11, 1000

    Seljuk Turkish Empir

    Seljuk Turkish Empir
    founded by an Oghuz Turkish bey (chieftain) named Seljuk. Originally from the steppe country around the Caspian Sea, the Seljuks are the ancestors of the Western Turks, present-day inhabitants of Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Azerbaijan.
  • Jul 13, 1095

    Council of Clermont

    Council of Clermont
    Pope Urban II opens the Council of Clermont where ambassadors from the Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus, asking help against the Muslims, were warmly received.
  • Jul 12, 1099

    Raymond of Toulouse

    Raymond of Toulouse
    Raymond of Toulouse, after disagreeing with Bohemund about the future crusader course of action, leads the majority of crusaders away from Antioch and toward Jerusalem.
  • Mar 17, 1299

    The Seventh Crusade

    The Seventh Crusade
    l-Kamil delivers Jerusalem to the emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen, arousing a storm of indignation in the Arab world. 1244: The Crusaders lose Jerusalem for the last time.
  • Jul 11, 1453

    The Fall of Constantinople

    The Fall of Constantinople
    he siege of Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire and one of the most heavily fortified cities in the world, took place in 1453. Sultan Mehmed II, ruler of the Ottoman Turks, led the assault. The city was defended by, at most, 10,000 men. The Turks had between 100,000 and 150,000 men on their side. The siege lasted for fifty days. The Turks employed various important war tactics in taking over the city. They used huge cannon to destroy the walls, warships were used to the cut the c