• Oct 1, 1400

    First Occupants

  • Sep 8, 1500

    Bering Strait Land Bridge

    Bering Strait Land Bridge
    The most common theory about how humans entered North America aprrox 1200 years ago. The first occupants (Native Americans) to get to North America using the Bridge came from Russia. They crossed the Land Bridge and then dispersed onto the North American continent. This was a major migration flow.
  • Sep 9, 1500

    Amerindian Population

    Amerindian Population
    Approx 25 000 in QC upon arrival of Europeans. Main groups: Iroquois, Algonquins, Inuits (lived in the North, Hudson+Ungava Bay)
    Iroquois: Semisedentary, St. Lawrence Valley, longhouses, villages with 1500-200 people, agriculture/hunting/gathering, matriarchal
    Algonquins: Nomad, Candian shield/ Appalachian mountains, wigwams/tipis, camps of 15 people during winter/100 during summer, hunting and gathering, patriarchial
    Both also: fish, canoe/snowshoe, nature-based religion, animal-based clothing
  • Sep 10, 1500

    Amerindian Population 2

    Amerindian Population 2
    Despite their being spread out on the large territory the tribes came into contact with one another for trade. There were many wars and conflicts driven by commercial issues and wounded pride.
  • Sep 11, 1533

    Basque and Breton Fishermen

    Basque and Breton Fishermen
    Sailed the Gulf of the Saint-Lawrence, communicated with the Native nations, fishing, and trading (fur). They set up temporary settlements in the summer to dry the fish and trade.
  • Sep 11, 1534

    Jacques Cartier- first European explorer

    Jacques Cartier- first European explorer
    Financed by France
    Looking to find a route to Asia, precious material (silks, spices minerals), claim land for King
    1.1534 he explores the gulf of Saint- Laurence.
    2. 1535 exploring Saint Lawrence River, encounters first nations people at Stadacona and Hochelaga (Iroquois settlements)
    3. 1541 he tries to bring settlers/ create a colony, most don’t survive.
  • Port Royal

    Port Royal
    Settlement in North America was ordered by the king. Port Royal NS established- Champlain was a part of it. It failed due to its positioning, hence QC was lower on the St. Lawrence.
  • Québec

    Samuel de Champlain (founder of Quebec city)
    -first real European village/ settlement/ colony Stadacona/Quebec city, good location on the St. Lawrence river, narrow good for traffic control.
    - The first contact is made with the Algonquins, fur trading and war alliances are made with the Innu, Algonquian, Abenaki, and Hurons.
    -makes an enemy of the Iroquois (Algonquins and Iroquois were enemies)
  • French Regime

    1608- 1760
  • Company of 100 Associates

    Company of 100 Associates
    French king of grants them trade monopoly (exclusive sale of furs) in New France, in exchange for populating the colony. This system ultimately failed. Investors did not populate because it was not profitable. They were to make sure that they were safe for their first year. This was also expensive. They wanted to be cost effective. 2 reason for failure
    -1 War between France and England
    -2 Expected to bring settlers, this cuts into their profits
  • Trois Rivières

    Trois Rivières
    Samuel de Champlain put Sieur Lavoiette in charge of finding a second settelment. Trois Rivière's purpose was to allow furrieurs to communicate and prevent Iroquois from intercepting their trades.
  • (Hochelaga) Ville-Marie (later Montréal)

    (Hochelaga) Ville-Marie (later Montréal)
    Paul Chomedy, Sieur de Maisonneuve, founded Ville-Marie close to the Iroquois Village Hochelaga (with the help of Jeanne-Mance). Its purpose was to evangelize, but it quickly became a large trading post.
  • Seigneurial System

    Seigneurial System
    Seigneurial system used;
    Seigneur or lord -land granted to him by the king : peasants (censitaires) live on the seigneurie and work the land and pay rent
  • Relationship/ French and Amerindians

    Relationship/ French and Amerindians
    The French traded fur with the Natives. They established alliances with the Algonquian, the Abenaki, and Huron peoples. The Iroquois Five Nations go to war against the french because their Iroquois were enemies with these nations. The conflicts became even more violent because all of the first nations wanted to trade with the French who were supplying them with firearms. The French fought alongside their allies in these battles.
  • Jean Talon Appointed

    Jean Talon Appointed
    Intendant of NF sent by King Louis XIV (14th).
  • Population efforts (Initiated by Jean Talon)

    Population efforts (Initiated by Jean Talon)
    Soldiers- encouraged to stay after their service with free land
    Engagés- half of the immigrants, workers, and apprentices, hired for 3 years, encouraged to stay after their service with free land
    Filles du Roy- Orphan girls of marital age, sent to NF to marry the large population of single men. The king offered a dowry with the girls. approx 800 girls 4450 resulting births Birth incentives: $ given for each child born -punishments/fines if you were unmarried after a certain age
  • Native Americans during the French Regime

    Native Americans during the French Regime
    Introduced diseases to which they had no immunity, the Native population decreased.
    French tried to assimilate them: attempted to convert them to Christianity, a sedimentary lifestyle, live under french laws and values.
  • Signing of the Great Peace of Montréal

    Signing of the Great Peace of Montréal
    Ended the century-old war between the French and the Iroquois, reestablishing some security.
  • Population of NF During the French Regime

    Population of NF During the French Regime
    1663:approx 3000-5000
    1760: approx 70 000
    *see diagram for demographics
  • British Conquest

    British Conquest
    End of New France- after the seven-year war (1756-1763) British won battle on the plains of Abraham
    1758 Louisbourg surrendered to English
    1759 Quebec City captured by the English
    1760 Capitulation of Montreal
  • British Regime

  • British military rule

    British military rule
    (1760- 1763) New France was under british military rule
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    Ends the seven-year war, France gives NF to England, renamed
  • Royal proclamation

    Royal proclamation
    Officially signed over New France, renamed territory to the Province of Quebec, English laws, Anglican church, catholicism and french were no longer recognized
  • Populations-Immigration-emigration post conquest

    Populations-Immigration-emigration post conquest
    British and Scottish immigration begins, English businessmen looking to take over.
    French bourgeois/ businessmen/ wealthy leave new France represents +2000 individuals, the peasants remain.
    The population is 99% French (Canadians, french speaking Catholics) 1% English but they are all British subjects. Aboriginal: populations were obliterated by the conquest and revolutionary war, low birth rate, famine, displaced.
  • Quebec Act

    Quebec Act
    The province’s territory expands, The oath of allegiance was replaced with one that no longer made reference to the protestant faith. Catholicism was now allowed. French civil laws were restored, English criminal laws remained in place.
  • Revolutionary war-Loyalists

    Revolutionary war-Loyalists
    1775-1783: 13 Colonies declare independence- Loyalists come to British North America (QC). 15%-20% of the population remained loyal to the king of England. 46,000 Loyalists came to British North America after the revolution (Most settle in the Maritimes), they go to land offered and subsidised by the monarchy. 10, 000 people settled in QC -west of MTL English population of QC has a sudden increase (1-10%)
    They settled according to the townships system, giving their settlements English names.
  • Constitutional Act

    Constitutional Act
    Land given to the loyalists entering Canada tax-free. Eastern townships colonised.
    Measures to encourage British immigration began (granting free land to shipping and railroad companies, immigration agents coming to the aid of immigrants in 1828). Colony divided :
    Upper Canada Maj. Anglo
    Lower Canada Maj. Franco
  • New immigration laws

    New immigration laws
    Discouraging American Immigration to Upper Canada
  • Québec population

    Québec population
    pop. triples due to natural growth. 160 000 after constitutional act, 660 00 after the act of union after the act of union
  • Immigration surge after 1815

    Immigration surge after 1815
    In Europe population was increasing quickly, unemployment and poverty were common, and there were periodic famines and epidemics. The British Gov. encouraged the poor to immigrate to the colonies. Immigrants came to Canada.
  • Population movement within QC

    Population movement within QC
    1830-1840: Many of the rural areas were overpopulated so French Canadians moved to existing or newly created urban areas like Saguenay and Lac St-Jean
  • Act of Union

    Act of Union
    This act united both upper and lower Canada.
  • US Emigration

    US Emigration
    Between 22 000 and 35 000 French Canadians move to the US mainly to Vermont, Mass, and Rhode island.
  • Potato Famine Immigrants

    Potato Famine Immigrants
    Period of mass starvation in Ireland. Main food source was potatoes not fit to eat, approx 1 million people died and 1 million emigrated. After 1845, waves of Irish Scottish and English immigrated to cities.
    Many of the immigrants settled in the Saint-Lawrence valley and Upper Canada. Conditions of passages were difficult, diseases spread
    Cholera epidemic (quarantine station at Grosse-Ile to prevent the spread into BNA)
  • IPF Immigrants + effects

    IPF Immigrants + effects
    Immigrants were English, Welsh, and Scots, mostly protestants. Some labored in the townships, some labored in the cities. Gave the French population cause for concern. Immigrants were willing to work for lower wages and took jobs from the Canadiens. Thus, over population on the seigneuries+lack of jobs leads to emigration to- forest areas (Outaouais/ Western Canada), the US (more jobs) and new areas are colonized/ encouraged to move to by the church (Abitibi, Mauricie).
    Religious diversification
  • Contemporary period

  • Confederation

    British North American Act
    The provinces of QC, ON, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia join together to create the dominion of Canada.
    3.4 million people in the dominion of Canada at the time of confederation
  • Native Population

    Native Population
    Forced to live on reserves. Indian act: The Federal government clarifies that reserves belong to them so that the can exploit natural resources without the consent of the natives. The aboriginal peoples were furious and protested. They were later compensated. Also gave them the status of that of a minor
  • John A Mcdonald's Policy

    John A Mcdonald's Policy
    Prime minister John A Macdonald (father of confederation implemented his National policy. Among other ideas, he wanted to settle the west of the Dominion through immigration. Workers needed to build the railroad as well.
  • French Canadian Emigration

    French Canadian Emigration
    After the Act of Union, many Canadians started leaving to the US or relocating to other provinces. At the start of the 20th century, the rate of emigration increased. some factors were:
    Shortage of the farmland in the St. Lawrence valley
    Railways being developed in the United States and Canada (geographic mobility)
    Proximity to the American border

    Wages in industrial centers of the US were higher
    Modernization of agricultural tools reduced the need for manual labour (less people needed)
  • First Canadian Census

    First Canadian Census
    QC had 1 191 516 inhabitants. More the one million were french Canadians which represented about 30% of the population of the dominion.
  • Immigration During the early 20th century

    Immigration During the early 20th century
    Immigration contributed to diversification
    During WWI Immigration decreased
  • WW2- Immigration and population

    WW2- Immigration and population
    Canada closed its borders during the war.
    -Germans, Jews, Italians immigrate pre-war but unfortunately they get labeled during wars. Xenophobia/anti-Semitism present -Post-war baby boom, brings age population down
  • Immigration Act of 1976

    Immigration Act of 1976
    Main objectives:
    Encourage population growth
    Enrich cultural heritage
    Facilitate family reunions
    Facilitate the adaptation of new residents into society
    Selection with non-discriminatory criteria
    Maintain humanitarian attitude towards refugees
  • Aging population

    Aging population
    Baby boomers are aging:
    Healthcare costs go up
    Mandatory age of retirement was abolished
    We will be missing workers in the labour force
    Pension plan will suffer
    Need for new infrastructure (residences and hospitals) Government impliments measures to support families.
  • Pluriculturality and Immigration

    Pluriculturality and Immigration
    -Quebec immigrants come from a number of countries which make our society very diverse.
    -Measures to prevent race discrimination and integration of newcomers into the workforce.