Oct 1, 1400
Sep 8, 1500
Bering Strait Land BridgeThe most common theory about how humans entered North America aprrox 1200 years ago. The first occupants (Native Americans) to get to North America using the Bridge came from Russia. They crossed the Land Bridge and then dispersed onto the North American continent. This was a major migration flow.
Sep 9, 1500
Amerindian PopulationApprox 25 000 in QC upon arrival of Europeans. Main groups: Iroquois, Algonquins, Inuits (lived in the North, Hudson+Ungava Bay)
Iroquois: Semisedentary, St. Lawrence Valley, longhouses, villages with 1500-200 people, agriculture/hunting/gathering, matriarchal
Algonquins: Nomad, Candian shield/ Appalachian mountains, wigwams/tipis, camps of 15 people during winter/100 during summer, hunting and gathering, patriarchial
Both also: fish, canoe/snowshoe, nature-based religion, animal-based clothing
Sep 10, 1500
Amerindian Population 2Despite their being spread out on the large territory the tribes came into contact with one another for trade. There were many wars and conflicts driven by commercial issues and wounded pride.
Sep 11, 1533
Basque and Breton FishermenSailed the Gulf of the Saint-Lawrence, communicated with the Native nations, fishing, and trading (fur). They set up temporary settlements in the summer to dry the fish and trade.
Sep 11, 1534
Jacques Cartier- first European explorerFinanced by France
Looking to find a route to Asia, precious material (silks, spices minerals), claim land for King
1.1534 he explores the gulf of Saint- Laurence.
2. 1535 exploring Saint Lawrence River, encounters first nations people at Stadacona and Hochelaga (Iroquois settlements)
3. 1541 he tries to bring settlers/ create a colony, most don’t survive.
Port RoyalSettlement in North America was ordered by the king. Port Royal NS established- Champlain was a part of it. It failed due to its positioning, hence QC was lower on the St. Lawrence.
QuébecSamuel de Champlain (founder of Quebec city)
-first real European village/ settlement/ colony Stadacona/Quebec city, good location on the St. Lawrence river, narrow good for traffic control.
- The first contact is made with the Algonquins, fur trading and war alliances are made with the Innu, Algonquian, Abenaki, and Hurons.
-makes an enemy of the Iroquois (Algonquins and Iroquois were enemies)
French Regime1608- 1760
Company of 100 AssociatesFrench king of grants them trade monopoly (exclusive sale of furs) in New France, in exchange for populating the colony. This system ultimately failed. Investors did not populate because it was not profitable. They were to make sure that they were safe for their first year. This was also expensive. They wanted to be cost effective. 2 reason for failure
-1 War between France and England
-2 Expected to bring settlers, this cuts into their profits
Trois RivièresSamuel de Champlain put Sieur Lavoiette in charge of finding a second settelment. Trois Rivière's purpose was to allow furrieurs to communicate and prevent Iroquois from intercepting their trades.
(Hochelaga) Ville-Marie (later Montréal)Paul Chomedy, Sieur de Maisonneuve, founded Ville-Marie close to the Iroquois Village Hochelaga (with the help of Jeanne-Mance). Its purpose was to evangelize, but it quickly became a large trading post.
Seigneurial SystemSeigneurial system used;
Seigneur or lord -land granted to him by the king : peasants (censitaires) live on the seigneurie and work the land and pay rent
Relationship/ French and AmerindiansThe French traded fur with the Natives. They established alliances with the Algonquian, the Abenaki, and Huron peoples. The Iroquois Five Nations go to war against the french because their Iroquois were enemies with these nations. The conflicts became even more violent because all of the first nations wanted to trade with the French who were supplying them with firearms. The French fought alongside their allies in these battles.
Jean Talon AppointedIntendant of NF sent by King Louis XIV (14th).
Population efforts (Initiated by Jean Talon)Immigration:
Soldiers- encouraged to stay after their service with free land
Engagés- half of the immigrants, workers, and apprentices, hired for 3 years, encouraged to stay after their service with free land
Filles du Roy- Orphan girls of marital age, sent to NF to marry the large population of single men. The king offered a dowry with the girls. approx 800 girls 4450 resulting births Birth incentives: $ given for each child born -punishments/fines if you were unmarried after a certain age
Native Americans during the French RegimeIntroduced diseases to which they had no immunity, the Native population decreased.
French tried to assimilate them: attempted to convert them to Christianity, a sedimentary lifestyle, live under french laws and values.
Signing of the Great Peace of MontréalEnded the century-old war between the French and the Iroquois, reestablishing some security.
Population of NF During the French Regime1663:approx 3000-5000
1760: approx 70 000
*see diagram for demographics
British ConquestEnd of New France- after the seven-year war (1756-1763) British won battle on the plains of Abraham
1758 Louisbourg surrendered to English
1759 Quebec City captured by the English
1760 Capitulation of Montreal
British military rule(1760- 1763) New France was under british military rule
Treaty of ParisEnds the seven-year war, France gives NF to England, renamed
Royal proclamationOfficially signed over New France, renamed territory to the Province of Quebec, English laws, Anglican church, catholicism and french were no longer recognized
Populations-Immigration-emigration post conquestBritish and Scottish immigration begins, English businessmen looking to take over.
French bourgeois/ businessmen/ wealthy leave new France represents +2000 individuals, the peasants remain.
The population is 99% French (Canadians, french speaking Catholics) 1% English but they are all British subjects. Aboriginal: populations were obliterated by the conquest and revolutionary war, low birth rate, famine, displaced.
Quebec ActThe province’s territory expands, The oath of allegiance was replaced with one that no longer made reference to the protestant faith. Catholicism was now allowed. French civil laws were restored, English criminal laws remained in place.
Revolutionary war-Loyalists1775-1783: 13 Colonies declare independence- Loyalists come to British North America (QC). 15%-20% of the population remained loyal to the king of England. 46,000 Loyalists came to British North America after the revolution (Most settle in the Maritimes), they go to land offered and subsidised by the monarchy. 10, 000 people settled in QC -west of MTL English population of QC has a sudden increase (1-10%)
They settled according to the townships system, giving their settlements English names.
Constitutional ActLand given to the loyalists entering Canada tax-free. Eastern townships colonised.
Measures to encourage British immigration began (granting free land to shipping and railroad companies, immigration agents coming to the aid of immigrants in 1828). Colony divided :
Upper Canada Maj. Anglo
Lower Canada Maj. Franco
New immigration lawsDiscouraging American Immigration to Upper Canada
Québec populationpop. triples due to natural growth. 160 000 after constitutional act, 660 00 after the act of union after the act of union
Immigration surge after 1815In Europe population was increasing quickly, unemployment and poverty were common, and there were periodic famines and epidemics. The British Gov. encouraged the poor to immigrate to the colonies. Immigrants came to Canada.
Population movement within QC1830-1840: Many of the rural areas were overpopulated so French Canadians moved to existing or newly created urban areas like Saguenay and Lac St-Jean
Act of UnionThis act united both upper and lower Canada.
US EmigrationBetween 22 000 and 35 000 French Canadians move to the US mainly to Vermont, Mass, and Rhode island.
Potato Famine ImmigrantsPeriod of mass starvation in Ireland. Main food source was potatoes not fit to eat, approx 1 million people died and 1 million emigrated. After 1845, waves of Irish Scottish and English immigrated to cities.
Many of the immigrants settled in the Saint-Lawrence valley and Upper Canada. Conditions of passages were difficult, diseases spread
Cholera epidemic (quarantine station at Grosse-Ile to prevent the spread into BNA)
IPF Immigrants + effectsImmigrants were English, Welsh, and Scots, mostly protestants. Some labored in the townships, some labored in the cities. Gave the French population cause for concern. Immigrants were willing to work for lower wages and took jobs from the Canadiens. Thus, over population on the seigneuries+lack of jobs leads to emigration to- forest areas (Outaouais/ Western Canada), the US (more jobs) and new areas are colonized/ encouraged to move to by the church (Abitibi, Mauricie).
ConfederationBritish North American Act
The provinces of QC, ON, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia join together to create the dominion of Canada.
3.4 million people in the dominion of Canada at the time of confederation
Native PopulationForced to live on reserves. Indian act: The Federal government clarifies that reserves belong to them so that the can exploit natural resources without the consent of the natives. The aboriginal peoples were furious and protested. They were later compensated. Also gave them the status of that of a minor
John A Mcdonald's PolicyPrime minister John A Macdonald (father of confederation implemented his National policy. Among other ideas, he wanted to settle the west of the Dominion through immigration. Workers needed to build the railroad as well.
French Canadian EmigrationAfter the Act of Union, many Canadians started leaving to the US or relocating to other provinces. At the start of the 20th century, the rate of emigration increased. some factors were:
Shortage of the farmland in the St. Lawrence valley
Railways being developed in the United States and Canada (geographic mobility)
Proximity to the American border
Wages in industrial centers of the US were higher
Modernization of agricultural tools reduced the need for manual labour (less people needed)
First Canadian CensusQC had 1 191 516 inhabitants. More the one million were french Canadians which represented about 30% of the population of the dominion.
Immigration During the early 20th centuryImmigration contributed to diversification
During WWI Immigration decreased
WW2- Immigration and populationCanada closed its borders during the war.
-Germans, Jews, Italians immigrate pre-war but unfortunately they get labeled during wars. Xenophobia/anti-Semitism present -Post-war baby boom, brings age population down
Immigration Act of 1976Main objectives:
Encourage population growth
Enrich cultural heritage
Facilitate family reunions
Facilitate the adaptation of new residents into society
Selection with non-discriminatory criteria
Maintain humanitarian attitude towards refugees
Aging populationBaby boomers are aging:
Healthcare costs go up
Mandatory age of retirement was abolished
We will be missing workers in the labour force
Pension plan will suffer
Need for new infrastructure (residences and hospitals) Government impliments measures to support families.
Pluriculturality and Immigration-Quebec immigrants come from a number of countries which make our society very diverse.
-Measures to prevent race discrimination and integration of newcomers into the workforce.