Population and Settlement

  • Jan 1, 1500

    Bering Strait Land Bridge (Arrival of natives to North America)

    Bering Strait Land Bridge (Arrival of natives to North America)
    The natives arrived in North America through the Bring Strait Land Bridge, from Siberia/Beringia.
  • Jan 1, 1500

    First Nations on the Quebec Land

    First Nations on the Quebec Land
    The natives were separated into 3 main families on the Quebec land. ~ Iroquois lived on the orange part of the map, on the St Lawrence valley. Their villages (sedentary) can be recognized by the palisade and the longhouses. ~ Algonquians lived on the darker green part of the map but they moved around the orange (nomadic). They can be recognized by their Wigwams. ~ Inuit lived on the white/light green area of the map, in the north of Quebec. They can be recognized by their igloos. (Nomadic)
  • Period: Jan 1, 1500 to


  • Jan 1, 1534

    Jacques Cartier

    Jacques Cartier
    Jaques Cartier is sent on 3 voyages by the King of France to the new world in search for:
    1) A route to Asia,
    2) Precious materials and minerals,
    3) To claim land for France.
  • Jan 1, 1534

    Jaques Cartier's First Voyage

    Jaques Cartier's First Voyage
    Jaques Cartier explores the Gulf of the St Lawrence River, and passes down the coasts of Newfoundland, P.E.I., parts of New Brunswick, and Gaspésie (where he plants a cross, claiming the land for the King of France), until returns back to France.
  • Jan 1, 1535

    Jaques Cartier's second voyage

    Jaques Cartier's second voyage
    On his second voyage, Cartier went down the St Lawrence River, while encountering FNP in Stadacona and Hochelaga (iroquois settlements) He continued his exploration in the Gulf, but the river was his best discovery.
  • Samuel de Champlain and New France settlements (1605-1642)

    Samuel de Champlain and New France settlements (1605-1642)
    Samuel de Champlain participated in the creation of many settlements including: ~ Port Royal, NS (1605): This failed because of its position. ~ Quebec City (1608): Was named Stadacona (where the river narrows) and made contact with Algonquian/Inuit (They had fur, which was the main trade.) This was the creation of New France. ~ Trois Rivières (1634) ~ Ville-Marie (1642): Today it is Montreal, was named Hochelaga before.
  • Organization of New France territory

    Organization of New France territory
    The territory was separated in the Seigneurial system. It worked by the King of France giving land to a Seigneur or a Lord, who then owned the land. The land was then bought/rented by the pesants (called censitaires) who worked and lived on the land.
  • Company of 100 associates

    Company of 100 associates
    They were the rich merchants who immigrated very early to the colony, and who financed their own trips. They were given a trade monopoly, on the fur in New France, from King Louis XIV. In return, the King wanted them to bring settlers with them to NF. They didn't want to bring the settlers because they would need to make sure that the settlers were ok for a year, so, it was not profitable for their business. Consequentially, it failed for that reason, and the war that was attacking the boats.
  • Jean Talon

    Jean Talon
    Jean Talon was the Intendant. He encouraged all the French to come except the Huguenots. He helped the population of New France to grow by putting several policies in place: The policies are on the next page (over word max)... His policies worked very well, with the population going from 3-5 thousand to 70 thousand from 1663-1760. Graph
  • Jean Talon's policies

    Jean Talon's policies
    His policies were: ~ To give free land to the Engages and Soldiers if they stated in NF after their service. ~ Sending the Filles du Roy to New France, who married the men in the colony, due to lack of women in the colony. ~ He also made incentives to higher births in the colony, for example, you would get money for having children and you would be fined if your children were not married, by a certain age.
  • End of the French Regime and start of the British Regime (1756-1760)

    End of the French Regime and start of the British Regime (1756-1760)
    New France was awarded to Great Britain in 1760, after France lost the seven year war. This lead to the departure of 2000 french nobility from the colony, to France, which left the majority of the population still on the land, who now lived under the british rule. In the 18th century, the french-speaking catholics who lived on the territory of New France were called Canadiens. Since they were spread out, and they had enough ressources, it allowed the Canadiens to maintain a high birth rate.
  • Royal Proclamation

    Royal Proclamation
    The Royal Proclamation was the document that officially gave New France to the British. It was renamed the Province of Quebec. English laws and the Anglican Church were put into the new colony to attract more English settlers. However, this banned the French Law and Catholicism, which was all the Canadiens knew.
  • Quebec Act

    Quebec Act
    The Quebec Act had many benefits for the Canadiens, including: ~ It expanded the province of Quebec's territory.
    ~ The oath of allegiance no longer made reference to the Protestant state.
    ~ The practice of Catholic state was allowed.
    ~ The French civil law was restored for private matter, however, the english law stayed for public administration, including, criminal prosecution.
  • Arrival of Loyalists

    Arrival of Loyalists
    After the American Revolution and the War of Independence, the thirteen colonies declared their independance from British Control, however, nearly 15-20% of the population remained loyal to the King of England. About 46,000 Loyalists came to British North America following the Revolution as the monarchy offered land to and subsidies for those that settled. 10,000 Loyalists settled in Quebec.
  • Constitutional Act

    Constitutional Act
    The Constitutional Act opened up new land to be given to the loyalists entering Canada. They colonized the Eastern Townships region of the Province of Quebec.Using the system of Townships, pieces of square land were offered to the loyalists tax free. Between 1775-1812, about 15,000 loyalists came to British North America. This Constitution also divided British North America into Upper-Canada (Ontario) mainly English-Canadian and Lower-Canada (Quebec) mainly French-Canadian.
  • Demography of Quebec (Lower-Canada) 1814-1861

    Demography of Quebec (Lower-Canada) 1814-1861
    From 1814 to 1861 the Quebec (Lower-Canada) population tripled (3x) due to natural growth, apprx. 160 000 after constitutional act to 660 000 after Act of Union (1840). Between 1830 and 1840 many of the rural areas were over populated so many French-Canadians moved to existing or newly created urban areas like Saguenay and Lac St-Jean. Also, after 1840, between 22 000 and 35 000 French Canadians emigrated to the United States, mainly Vermont, Maine, Massachusetts and Rhode Island.
  • Act of Union

    Act of Union
    The French Canadian rebel group called Patriotes wanted better representation for French speaking people and businessmen but were defeated by the english speaking Canadians. This act then united both Lower Canada and Upper Canada into one territory, Canada, where English became the official language and the French now found themselves as a minority.
  • The Great Famine

     The Great Famine
    Between 1845 and 1852, there was a period of mass starvation in Ireland, due to the potatoes not being edible. Apprx. 1 million people died and 1 million emigrated, many to Canada. All the boats arriving stopped in Grosse-Ile, which was used as a Quarantine, for the diseases the Irish people had.
  • Diversification of Settlement

    Diversification of Settlement
    The different groups arriving in Canada were, The Irish, who were Catholic, and the English, Welsh, and Scots were Protestants. Some of these groups farmed in the townships while others were laborers and tradesmen in the cities. They were willing to work for lower wages and often took jobs from the Canadiens. Many of the immigrants settled in the St. Lawrence valley and Upper Canada or to the US. The Canadiens then went either to the US, to colonize Quebec's regions, or to the forest areas.
  • Confederation

    Under the British North America Act, the Provinces of Quebec, New Brunswick, Ontario and Nova Scotia join together to create the Dominion of Canada.
  • Immigration policies from 1867-1885

    Immigration policies from 1867-1885
    In the census of 1871, it was recorded that Quebec had 1 191 516 inhabitants. More than one million were French Canadians, which represented about 30% of the population in the Dominion. Also, Prime Minister John A. MacDonald implemented his National Policy.
    Among other ideas, he wanted to settle the west of the dominion through immigration. Workers needed to build the railroad as well (job opportunities.)
  • The Native Population (1876-1990)

    Indian Act: 1876
    ~ Aboriginal claims related to the exploitation of natural resources by the gouvernement. Oka Crisis: 1990
  • Emigration to the US

    Emigration to the US
    After the Act of Union many Canadians started leaving. At the turn of the 20th century the rate of emigration increased. Some of the factors were: ~Shortage of farmland in the St. Lawrence valley ~Railway being developed in northeast of the United States - geographic mobility ~Proximity to American Border ~Wages in industrial centers of the US were higher. ~Modernization of agricultural tools reduced the need for manual labour.
  • The Baby Boom

    The Baby Boom
    After the second World War, the return of the troops and economic prosperity leads to the growth of the population as marriages and births increased. A decrease in the mortality rate lead to many changes in society as the average age of the population decreased.
    The State had to invest in Hospitals, schools, and other public institutions to meet the needs of the growing population. It ended in the 1960's with women going to work and the start of contraceptive methods.