Official and Countervailing Powers

  • 1500

    Power Within Native Groups

    Power Within Native Groups
    In an Algonquian nation, the best spokesperson (decided by man because it’s a patriarchal society) is the leader of the tribe. In an Iroquoian nation, the best hunter (decided by a woman because it’s a matriarchal society) is the leader of the tribe.
  • Royal Government

    Royal Government
    After 1663, royal government was put in act, king controls everything. There are several different positions such as the King and the Minister of Marine, Governor, Intendant, Sovereign Council, Bishop and Captain of the Militia.
  • Great Peace of Montreal

    Great Peace of Montreal
    40 aboriginal nations agreed to consider the king of France their father and allowed the governor general to resolve their disputes and help France. The French get control over fur trade since now they don’t have to worry about being attacked since they're an alliance. Aboriginals are happy since they get guns, not fighting with French and no more disputes/fights between other nations.
  • Treaty of Utrecht

    Treaty of Utrecht
    This treaty was caused because countries are fighting in Europe which ended up leading to war in the colonies as well. This lead to the end of the war of Spanish Succession. This was the first major war between colonies that starts decreasing the population.
  • 7 years war

    7 years war
    From 1756-1763, a war broke out between Great Britain and French. The 7 years war in Europe broke out in the colonies as well. France focuses its efforts in Europe so New France is left to defend itself. At the end of the war, the English won.
  • Royal Proclamation

    Royal Proclamation
    In this proclamation, the king renames the colony, The Province of Quebec, decreases the borders of the St-Lawrence Valley, there was now a civilian government, English Criminal and Civil law were applied, no new Bishops would be allowed in the colony and no Roman Catholics could hold office.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    This treaty ended the 7 years war. The British took over the French territory. New France is given to the King of England except for St. Pierre and Miquelon.
  • Loyalists

    The only British colony is left is Canada. 36 000 loyalists came to Canada and settled in the Maritimes or around the great lakes.
    6000 loyalists came to Quebec (West of Montreal or in Eastern Townships). English population of Quebec goes from 1% to 10% They settled the land using townships instead of seigneurs. The loyalists were used to English civil laws and an elected assembly. Petitioned London to demand changes to the way Quebec was being run.
  • Quebec Act

    Quebec Act
    In this act, the king enlarged the area of Quebec to include the Great Lakes once again, Still denied an elected assembly, allowed for an appointed council, French civil laws were re-instated, the Test Oath Act was replaced with an Oath of Allegiance.
  • Constitutional Act

    Constitutional Act
    This act split up Canada into Upper and Lower Canada. Upper Canada was entirely English and Lower Canada was mostly French. There were different cultures and ideas expressed in both parts of Canada. There is now a representative government. There are several faults in this form of government. For example, even though the Legislative assembly had the right to create laws, the governor general always vetoed them.
  • Political Parties in Upper Canada

    Political Parties in Upper Canada
    The Legislative Council was one of two political parties in Upper Canada. This Council were English speaking merchants and landowners that were appointed but not elected and had the power to veto laws. The Legislative Assembly was the other political party. The people in the Assembly was voted by citizens and there was a Representative Government. The Family Compact and the Reformers were examples of people in the Legislative Assembly.
  • Political Parties in Lower Canada

    Political Parties in Lower Canada
    The British Party party is also known as the Chateau Clique were wealthy British and French who supported British rule. The Parti Canadien is also known as the Parti Patriote were wealthy and poor French, early separatists, intellectuals and professionals and unhappy with power.
  • 92 Resolutions

    92 Resolutions
    Louis Joseph Papineau, the leader of the Parti Patriote, wrote a letter containing the demands of the assembly in Lower Canada. The main demand was a Responsible Government. This meant that the members of the council should be chosen from the elected assembly, therefore, the government made up of the people would be responsible for its decisions. Papineau wants to stay a part of Great Britain although have thier own parliament. Papineau’s document was sent to London to be reviewed.
  • 10 Russell Resolutions

    10 Russell Resolutions
    Victoria was put in power since the old king of London died and let Russell decide what to do with the petition. He rejected the request for an elected council. Instead of gaining power, the elected assembly actually lost some power. This really upsets the Patriotes and thus begins the demonstrations that eventually lead to the rebellions.
  • Act of Union

    Act of Union
    In the Act of Union, they created a Responsible Government, therefore, the people would now elect the Legislative Assembly, the Prime Minister formed the Cabinet and proposed laws that had to be approved by the assembly, the Governor and the Legislative council were still appointed but did not intervene even though pressured to do so and Lord Elgin became the first to not use his power of veto and let the prime minister have executive power.
  • Charlottetown Conference

    Charlottetown Conference
    Leaders of Canada East/West meet with the leaders of three Maritime Provinces (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island). They left the meetings agreeing to consider a merger.
  • Quebec Conference

    Quebec Conference
    Leaders of Canada East/West meet with the leaders of three Maritime Provinces agreed on 72 resolutions that would make the merger possible. They wanted a federal system, 24 seats to each colony (total 72 seats), an Assembly elected by “rep by pop” and to build a railway between colonies.The conferences went well but the people weren’t so accepting of what their politicians were
  • The London Conference

    The London Conference
    Leaders of the 4 colonies meet and release from the British Empire to become a new self-governing” colony; The Dominion of Canada. Ottawa became the capital. Later Canada was made up of 4 provinces: Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. The other provinces only joined Canada in 1870 and later. There were two governments (federal and provincial) and they both had different roles.
  • Conscription Crisis

    Conscription Crisis
    This crisis took place around WW1. Henri Bourassa (French Nationalist) forced/persuaded many people to join the war because if Great Britain is in war, so is Quebec. If you don't join you can be jailed. The reason it is bad to force people to go to war because they will rebel because they don't want to fight. 40 000 french canadian people did rebel against this.
  • Feminism

    Many associations and organizations popped up to support women's rights and suffrage. They later obtained the right to vote federally, Quebec then grants women the right to vote previous leaders and the church were against giving this right, then women could perform legal acts without their husband's consent, there is now equal pay and daycares.
  • Duplessis

    Duplessis is a part of the Union National Party. He was a traditionalist, therefore, he ended up putting Quebec back 100 years in terms of their development. He did not believe in a welfare state. He believed and offered subsidies to the Church and favorable conditions for investment purposes. He defended provincial autonomy and had many battles with Ottawa over federal intiatives in provincial jurisdictions such as university funding.
  • Quiet Revolution

    Quiet Revolution
    This was lead by Jean Lasage (Liberal party). He wanted to advance Quebec again because they're behind due to Duplessis. He created free and compulsory school and public hospitals, nationalized hydroelectricity, created the ministry of education formed, therefore the church no longer in charge of schools but school boards were still divided by catholic or protestant, Quebec Pension Plan were created as well as CEGEPs.
  • FLQ crisis

    FLQ crisis
    The FLQ was a radical group that believed that Quebec's independence can only be obtained through violence. This political party was lead by Paul Rose. They started bombing rich English peoples' mailboxes and later kidnapped James Cross and Pierre Laporte. This lead to Justin Trudeau using the war measures act. He called the army and arrested many FLQ members.
  • First Referendum

    First Referendum
    Rene Levesque is a separatist lead the PQ party and wanted a sovereignty-association. This means that he wants to separate Quebec from Canada but still wants Canada's currency and if they're ever in war, they would use Canada's army. After a vote, 60% of the population voted against this.
  • Second Referendum

    Second Referendum
    In this Referendum, Jacques Parizeau lead the PQ and they were now back in power. He wanted a sovereignty and this meant that he wanted Quebec to be full on independent. After a vote, only 50.6% of the population voted against the separation.