North American History

  • Port Royal

    Samuel Champlain creates a permanent settlement called Port Royal.
  • Company of 100 Associates

    First trading settlement in North America. Traded fur, guns, tools, etc between the First Nations and Europeans.
  • Hudson's Bay Company

    Owned by British. They controlled Rupert's Land(area around Hudson's Bay) from 1670-1869. They have a monopoly from King Charles II for all the trading rights around Hudson's Bay,

    The French lost in a battle between the British they gave up Port Royal. The Treaty of Utrecht surrendered part of Newfoundland and Quebec to Britain.

    People in various parts of Quebec were deported by the British to America.

    This agreement organized North American territories and everyone now had an official area of land.

    This act allowed the French to help make laws for the colonies and reserved the Ohio Valley for the First Nations. Furthermore, anyone trading with the First Nations must have a license first.
  • Northwest Trading Company

    Owned by French. It was based in Montreal and was the rival of the HBC.

    This act split the English and the French into Upper and Lower Canada or West and East Canada, respectively. They each had a political party.
  • WAR OF 1812

    This war was fought on North American soil and involved the Canadians, Americans, and the First Nations. There was no winner in the war. A group of American politicians, called the War Hawks, though that USA should expand their borders so on June 19, 1812, the president of USA declared war on Britain.
  • Pemmican Proclamation

    This proclamation was made because of harsh living conditions in the Red River Settlement. It states that no food could be taken from Assiniboia without a license. This affected the Métis because they made pemmican to trade for furs. In other words, the Métis living in Red River couldn't trade pemmican anymore. It was a huge blow to them because pemmican was the main source of income for the Métis. They got angry and they rebelled against the government and destroyed settler's crops.

    This treaty was an agreement between Britain and USA stating that they will never use First Nations as allies again. Borders between the two countries were clearly established. However, the First Nations were unable to gain any more land, but they were able to keep the land they already owned.
  • Great Migration of 1815

    Immigration from Britain was encouraged, and the First Nations were assimilated. Many people from Ireland migrated to Canada due to the famine irish, a disease that affected potatoes, leading to starvation.
  • NW Trading Company joins HBC

    The Hudson's Bay Company and the Northwest Trading Company join together as the Hudson's Bay Company
  • 1837 Rebellions

    1837 Rebellions
    Many citizens rebelled against the government because of many things. For example, many reformers (people who want to bring about change), like William Lyon Mackenzie, wanted responsible government. This means that members of the Executive Council were chosen based on the group with the most elected members rather than the governor choosing. During the rebellion, there were plenty of riots and protests, and as a result, some casualities. In the end, responsible government was achieved.

    This act joined Upper and Lower Canada into one colony called Canada. Kingston was made the capital at the time. Also, this agreement gave Upper and Lower Canada the same number of seats in the Legislative Assembly. There were 450000 people in Upper Canada, and 650000 people in Lower Canada.
  • Repeal of the corn laws

    This law said that no cheap wheat could be exported to Britain. This caused farmers to go bankrupt because they couldn't compete with larger wheat producers. Later, there was even talk about Canada joining the U.S.A. because of the bankruptcy.
  • Bill of 1849

    People of Canada East wanted repayment for losses during the rebellion. They also wanted representatives to be based on the number of voters. In other words, rep by pop.

    This act stated that ''Anyone who knew the whereabouts of a slave or is housing a slave will face severe punishment." Because of this act, efforts to sneak slaves into Canada were slowed.

    This treaty was a policy of free trade for some things between Britain and the U.S. Lord Elgin, with his strong persuasion skills, managed to persuade U.S.A. into signing it. This treaty stabilized Britain's economy and trade with the U.S. was encouraged. Britain's economical and financial problems were resolved.
  • Charlottetown Conference

    This conference had a relaxed mood and its purpose was to encourage a positive attitude toward confederation. NB premier Sam Tilley, NS premier Charles Tupper, PEI premier John Gray, MacDonald (Conservative), Brown (Clear Grits), and Cartier (Parti bleu) attended. Keeping things simple, the conference talked about a proposal for the new government. It was almost a party, with balls and wine and great maritime seafood. The conference ended on Sept. 9.
  • Quebec Conference

    Quebec Conference
    This was a much more intense conference than the Charlottetown Conference. The same provinces attended this conference. Newfoundland did not participate in the conference, but they observed it. There were 2 different opinions. Some delegates wanted the federal government to have most of the control, while others wanted the provincial governments to have more say on what happens within the province. Eventually, the 72 Resolutions were made, which was a plan for the confederation of Canada.
  • London Conference

    This was the final conference before confederation. Delegates from the Province of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick attended. They expanded on the 72 Resolution, drafted in the Quebec Conference. The main topic in this conference was education. they decided that Ontario and Quebec schools would have separate school systems, but schools in NB and NS would have the same system. At the end of the conference, the expanded version of the 72 Resolutions was named the BNA Act.

    This act officially pronounced Canada confederated. It was not fully independent though, because Britain still had legislative control over Canada. There were many BNA Acts over the years, and this particular act set Canada's federal structure, criminal laws, taxation, and the House of Commons.