Middle Ages

  • 100

    Tacitus' Germania

    A monograph on people's inhabiting barbarian lands, Tacitus critiques Roman society by writing about the Germanic tribes.
  • 313

    Edict of Milan

    A proclamation by Constantine for tolerance of Christianity in the Roman Empire.
  • 325

    Nicaean Creed

    Emperor Constantine calls upon the council of Nicea in hopes to unify the Christian church under one set of ideas.
  • 410

    The Sacking of Rome by Alaric

    Rome sacked by Visigoths, led by Alaric. Viewed as one of major events in the fall of the western Roman empire.
  • 410

    Legions Depart

    Roman legions depart causing england to search for other protection.
  • 449

    Anglo-Saxon Inasion

    At the beginning of the fifth century, the Romans left Britain. They had not trained the British to defend themselves and so the next time the Saxons tried to invade Britain they succeeded, travelling to England at first to protect them but when not payed invaded it.
  • 450

    Theodosius' wall construction

    Theodosius builds a wall around Constantinople, declaring it as the new capitol of the eastern Roman empire.
  • 466

    Reign of Clovis

    Clovis expands empire to size of Gaul, stresses importance of education.
  • Period: 476 to Dec 25, 750

    Merovingian Dynasty

    Created by Childeric the I, succeeded by his son Clovis who expanded the empire to almost the size of Gaul.
  • 500

    The Salic Law

    Civil law code by Clovis compiled in 500 C.E. Purpose being to have a written codification of the law so it is more fair and clear.
  • 519

    The house of Wessex

    The family that ruled a kingdom in southwest England known as Wessex, from the 6th century until the unification of the Kingdoms of England.
  • 527

    Justinian Becomes emperor

    Justinian becomes emperor of Byzantine empire with large plans to make the Roman empire great again
  • 532

    Nika Revolt

    People of Constantinople rebel against Justinian trying to kill him, when about to leave the city in fear his wife stands firm causing him to stay as well. Destruction of Haga Sophia, rebuilt later.
  • 594

    Gregory of Tours, History of the Franks

    A christian historian who writes a history of the Franks, biased to Christian kings such as Clovis because he is a bishop in the church even excusing Clovis' misdeeds because he is Christian.
  • Dec 24, 622

    Mohammed leaves Mecca for Medina

    Mohammed migrates to Medina and unites tribes under constitution of Medina.
  • Dec 24, 623

    Muhammad conquers Mecca

    Muhammad gathers army of 10000 Muslims and while outnumbered conquers under the idea that if you die fighting you will go to paradise.
  • Dec 24, 656

    Ali is killed

    Death of Ali causes issue of who is next in line to rule, causing two groups of belief: Sunni, and Shi'ite.
  • Period: Dec 24, 661 to Dec 25, 750

    Ummayad Empire

    Empire established after Muhammad's death lasting about 90 years.
  • Dec 24, 691

    Dome of the rock built

    A shrine located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem
  • Dec 24, 700

    Venerable Bede's Writing

    Bede was moreover a skilled linguist and translator, his work made the writings of the early Church Fathers much more accessible to his fellow Anglo-Saxons, helping to contribute significantly to English Christianity.
  • Oct 10, 732

    Battle of Tours

    Battle of tours where Martel leads Frankish to defeat the Moors
  • Period: Dec 24, 750 to Dec 25, 1258

    The Abbasid Empire

    Third of Islamic Caliphates descending from Muhammad's youngest uncle.
  • Period: Dec 24, 750 to Dec 25, 887

    Carolingian Dynasty

    Family of Frankish aristocrats and the dynasty (ad 750–887) that they established to rule western Europe.
  • Dec 24, 751

    Pepin the Short

    King of Franks, first Merovingian to be King.
  • Dec 25, 800

    Charlemagne Crowned by pope

    After Charlemagne's army helps out the pope, he crowns Charlemagne, showing us that he has power over him.
  • Dec 24, 871

    Alfred the Great

    Alive for 50 years, king of Wessex, also took great importance in education unified England to defend against the vikings.
  • Dec 24, 1000


    A Christian poet writes the old English poem Beowulf, important timing because it was a Germanic tale written by a Christian causing a mix of ideals and values in the carachters.
  • Dec 24, 1000

    Population Growth (Europe after Ice age)

    After the mini Ice age because of warmer weather, there was a growth in population making the land too small to hold so many people.
  • Period: Dec 24, 1060 to Dec 25, 1307

    Seljuk Dynasty

    Seljuk Turks capture Jerusalem in 1071. Around 985 they converted to Islam.
  • Dec 24, 1066

    Norman Invasion

    Last invasion of England, where William the conqueror conquers England after dispute on successor, 1066. Bayeux Tapestry commissioned by half-brother to show the battle.
  • Dec 24, 1095

    Pope urban's speech

    Pope urban calls for crusades to take back the holy land, saying that Muslims are destroying churches, making Jerusalem unclean, the land they had was too small. The main reason he gave was the remission of their sins.
  • Jul 15, 1097

    Christians take Jerusalem: First Crusade

    Christians breach Jerusalem kill 70,000 Muslims and burn Jews to the ground. The conquerors were violent, unchristian, merciless, dishonest.
  • Period: Dec 24, 1187 to Dec 25, 1197

    Third Crusade

  • Period: Dec 24, 1198 to Dec 25, 1207

    Fourth Crusade

    The Fourth Crusade is called to recapture Jerusalem. but it is diverted to Constantinople instead
  • Dec 24, 1200

    Prose Edda

    Written by Snorri Sturlson a Norwegian poet and politician, significance being that it is one of the first attempts to explain mythological or even legendary events. He states that we lost the name of god because people no longer worshiped and appreciated god. Thor was described as an angry, strong and warlike god. This shows us insight into Germanic tribal values of being strong and warlike.
  • Dec 24, 1212

    Children's Crusadex

    The Children's Crusade was a disastrous Crusade by European Christians to remove Muslims from the Holy Land
  • Period: Dec 24, 1215 to Dec 25, 1221

    Fifth Crusade

    The Fifth Crusade is launched as an attack on Egypt but it ultimately ends in failure.
  • Period: Dec 24, 1222 to Dec 25, 1244

    Sixth Crusade

    Crusade ended with a peace treaty granting Christians control of several important holy sites, including Jerusalem.
  • Dec 24, 1270

    Eigth Crusade

    The Eighth Crusade was a crusade launched by Louis IX of France against the city of Tunis in 1270.
  • Period: Dec 24, 1271 to Dec 25, 1272

    Ninth Crusade

    Considered to be the last major medieval Crusade to the Holy Land.
  • Dec 24, 1325

    Ibn Battuta pilgrimage

    A Muslim traveler and scholar who is recognized as one of the greatest travelers of the world.
  • Dec 24, 1453

    Ottoman Empire takes Constantinople

    Caused the end of the Roman empire, and the spread of Islamc