Preserve Germanic culture because the Germanic tribes did not record down their traditions. Critique of Roman societies by depicting good German values.
Early Christian: Edict of Milan
Religious toleration to Christianity issued by Constantine
Early Christian: Nicene Creed
Establishment of standard Christian beliefs by the First Catholic Council of Nicaea
Germanic Tribes: The Sacking of Rome by Alaric
Rome sacked by the Visigoths under the leadership of king Alaric
Byzantine: Theodosius II
Theodosius II builds a great wall around Constantinople, center of the Byzantine Empire
Period: 476 to Dec 25, 752
France: The Merovingian Dynasty
A Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks.
France: The Salic Law
Ancient Salian Frankish civil law code compiled by Clovis. The main goal of it is to unite the Frankish tribes, and provide equality and protection to minorities, eg. women.
England: Legions depart
The Germanic tribes started to immigrate to other places from Scandinavia because of constant feuds and violence. England is a good place because Rome had taken back most of its power in there.
France: Reign of Clovis
Conversion to Christianity. First king to unite all Frankish tribes.
Justinian becomes Emperor of the Byzantine empire.
Byzantine: Nika Revolt
The Greens represented the lower classes; the Blues, the upper classes. In 532 the two factions joined in the Nika revolt against Emperor Justinian I and Empress Theodora. The destruction of the city's church caused Hagia Sophia, a gorgeous Christian church to be built, which was later converted to an Islam mosque during the conquest of Muslims (Ottoman Turks)
England: Anglo-Saxon invasion
The Anglo Saxons left Rome because the Romans did not pay them for their military contribution and for feuds, so they traveled to England. They established Christian community there.
France: Gregory of Tours
The history of Franks depicted the successful rule of the Frankish kingdom under King Clovis. Gregory was a bishop, so his depiction of King Clovis, an adopter of Christianity, will be inclined to praise Clovis.
Dec 24, 600
England: the house of Wessex
The House became rulers of a unified English nation after the descendants of Alfred the Great down to Edward the Confessor in 1066
Dec 24, 610
Islam: Foundation of Islam
Muhammad received revelation in Mecca and fled to Medina because of people's opposition to him and his followers. He formed the Qur'an.
Dec 24, 624
Islam: Muhammad conquers Mecca
Muhammad faced his enemy Abu Sufian and his Quraysh army from Mecca in Medina. Muhammad was outnumbered, and thus he stated that every man who was killed in the Holy war by fighting bravely will go to paradise.
Dec 24, 632
Islam: Sunni and Shia
Following Muhammad's death, the Muslims were divided into Sunni and Shia. The Shiites was led by Ali, who was murdered in 661.
Period: Dec 24, 661 to Dec 25, 750
Islam: Umayyad Empire
The first great Muslim dynasty to rule the empire of the Caliphate (Arab), led by Abu Sufian, who originally opposed Islam.
Dec 24, 673
England: Venerable Bead
First story-teller in English culture with great narrative for anglo saxon kings served as propaganda.
Dec 24, 691
Islam: Dome of the Rock
An Islamic shrine in Jerusalem where Muhammad is believed to ascend to heaven.
Oct 24, 732
France: Battle of Tours and Charles Martel
At the Battle of Tours near Poitiers, France, Frankish leader Charles Martel, a Christian, defeats a large army of Spanish Moors, halting the Muslim advance into Western Europe.
Period: Dec 24, 750 to Dec 25, 1258
Islam: Abbasid Empire
Overthrow the Umayyad Empire, and turned focus to Eastwards, not well-related with Islam. Capital in Iraq
Dec 24, 751
France: Pepin the short
King of Franks, son of Charles Martel. Great conqueror, first Carolingian king
Period: Dec 24, 751 to Dec 25, 1122
France: The Carolingian Dynasty
Overthrew the Merovingian dynasty, a Frankish noble family. Peppin the short, crowned king by the pope,
Dec 24, 800
Crowned by pope. Focused on education and cultural activities within the church. Unite most of the Western Europe.
Dec 24, 849
England: Alfred the Great
Alive from 849 to 899. The great Anglo-Saxon king that successfully defeated the vikings. Translated Latin and made the Anglo Saxon chronicle, the history of England
Dec 24, 1000
Middle Ages: Population Growth
After the ice age, mild climate, agricultural growth, and cultural achievements
Dec 24, 1000
An Anglo-Saxon poem about the adventure of great hero Beowulf. Written in 1000, as Christianity became very popular and the Germanic tribes successfully invaded Western Europe, it served as a fusion of Christianity and Norse Mythology.
Period: Dec 24, 1000 to Dec 25, 1300
Islam: Seljuk Dynasty
Turkish&Sunni Muslim empire in central Asia, target in the first crusade. Take control over the holy land at 1071, and persecute Christians. This dynasty is different from the other two as it dealt harshly with the Christians and experienced warfare with the Christians.
Dec 24, 1054
Byzantine: Schism between Greek Orthodox and Catholic Church
Separation of the Greek Orthodox and the Catholic church.
Dec 24, 1095
Middle Ages: Pope Urban
Speech at Council of Clermont promoted people to join the First crusade against Seljuk Turks in Jerusalem. 1: Rewarded with going to heaven and remission of sins. 2: The turks destroyed the holy sites, no miraculous power. 3: Christians are overpopulated, need to have more land. 4:Church is being polluted.5: Can get lots of money and land from crusade. To peasants: Free from paying tax. No interest to debt. Serfs can leave the land. Prisoners are freed and enlisted.
Jul 24, 1099
Middle Ages: Christians took Jerusalem in the First Crusade
A skilled Christian army from Western Europe besieged and conquered Jerusalem, and slaughtered 70000 Muslims and also burned the Jewish inhabitants in the synagogue.
Dec 24, 1100
England: Norman invasion of England
Battle for inheritance of England after the death of Edward. Main competitors: Harold(Danish king), Godwinson(brother in law), and William the Conqueror from Normandy. The tapestry describing this event is the Bayeux Tapestry.
Period: Dec 24, 1189 to Dec 25, 1192
Middle Ages: Third Crusade
European Christian leader reconquer the Holy land (Acre and Jaffa. but not Jerusalem) from Saladin.
Dec 24, 1200
Snorri Sturlson, a Christian, recorded down the Germanic pagan stories. He said that man lost the name of God as a rational explanation to the pagan religions, and their worship to Thor, which reflected the Germanic tribal value of military admiration and constant feuds.
Period: Dec 24, 1202 to Dec 25, 1204
Middle Ages: Fourth Crusade
Called by Pope Innocent III, originally intended to conquer Muslim-controlled Jerusalem, but led to the sacking the city of Constantinople,
Dec 24, 1212
Middle Ages: Children's Crusade
A boy began preaching in Europe claiming that he had been visited by Jesus and told to lead a Crusade to peacefully convert Muslims to Christianity. His followers were lots of children, and as they were sailing, they were either sold into slavery or dead of starvation.
Period: Dec 24, 1213 to Dec 25, 1221
Middle Ages: Firfth Crusade
Attempt to reacquire Jerusalem and the rest of the Holy Land by first conquering the powerful Ayyubid state in Egypt.
Period: Dec 24, 1228 to Dec 25, 1229
Middle Ages: Sixth Crusade
The diplomatic effort of the Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick II, with the Muslim leader resulted in the Kingdom of Jerusalem regaining some control over Jerusalem
Dec 24, 1270
Middle Ages: Eighth Crusade
King Louis decided to attack Tunis first, which would give them a strong base for attacking Egypt, resulted in a treaty with Tunis for trading.
Period: Dec 24, 1271 to Dec 25, 1272
Middle Ages: Ninth Crusade
Louis IX of France's failure to capture Tunis in the Eighth Crusade led Henry III of England's son Edward to sail to Acre. Impressive victories for Edward over Baibars (Egyptian leader), but dying crusade spirit.
Dec 24, 1325
Islam: Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta, a great Muslim traveler, went to Mecca for the pilgrimage and recorded down his traveling.
Dec 24, 1453
Middle Ages: Ottoman Empire
Constantinople were taken by an invading Ottoman army, which was led to further invasion to Western Europe (Christianity).