• 100


    Germania is a history of German culture used by Tacitus to critique and shame the Roman people.
  • 313


    The Edict of Milan, created by Constantine, enforced religious toleration of Christianity in the Roman Empire
  • 325


    The Niacean Creed is a Christian prayer that confirms the true identity and divinity of Jesus, settling the Arian Controversy.
  • 410

    BYZANTINE: The sacking of Rome by Alaric

    The Visigoths, a German tribe led by King Alaric, attacked Rome and this led to the fall of Eastern Rome in 476.
  • 410

    ENGLAND: Legions depart

    This marks the end of Roman rule in Britain.
  • 413

    BYZANTINE: Theodosius II builds a great wall (Trump is that you?) around Constantinople, establishing it as the center of the new eastern Roman Empire

    Theodosius II's walls were defensive stone walls that surrounded the city of Constantinople.
  • 450

    ENGLAND: Anglo-Saxon Invasion

    During the mid-5th century, Anglo-Saxons began taking English territory from native people. The first Anglo-Saxons traveled to England because they were looking for new places to settle down.
  • Period: 457 to Dec 25, 752

    FRANCE: The Merovingian Dynasty

    The Merovingian Dynasty was a Salic Frank dynasty that ruled for nearly 300 years.
  • 500

    FRANCE: The Salic Law

    The Salic Law was the ancient Frankish civil law code that was used to reduce infighting within the Germanic community.
  • 509

    FRANCE: Reign of Clovis

    Clovis was a Merovingian Frankish king who famously converted to Christianity at his wife's request. This led to many Franks converting to Christianity as well.
  • 527

    BYZANTINE: Justinian becomes emperor of the Byzantine Empire

    Justinian was a Roman emperor who sought to restore the fallen western half of the Roman Empire during his reign.
  • 532

    BYZANTINE: Nika Revolt

    The Nika revolt occurred at a chariot race after fans became fed up with Justinian because he refused to pardon two charioteers who were connected to murder. The pent-up anger of the fans was directed at Justinian, and eventually destroyed half of Constantinople. Out of the wreckage, however, Justinian built the Hagia Sofia. Originally a church and later a mosque, the Hagia Sofia had both Christian and Islamic styles of architecture, making it very unique.
  • 594

    FRANCE: Gregory of Tours, History of the Franks

    Gregory of Tours wrote a history of the Franks, which was very biased since Gregory was a bishop as well as historian. Gregory excused and softened the actions of Christian Franks, such as the murderous King Clovis, but condemned the pagan Franks for doing the same things. His depiction of Clovis was milder than how he truly was.
  • Jun 1, 622

    ISLAM: Muhammad leaves Mecca for Medina / Foundation of Islam

    Muhammad was warned of a plot to assassinate him, so he and his followers moved to Medina from Mecca.
  • Jan 1, 623

    ISLAM: Muhammed conquers Mecca

    Muhammad, originally losing his battle, rallies his followers by telling them that they will go to paradise if they die fighting this battle. Muhammad eventually wins, and his words create the ideas of jihad, which is holy war, and terrorism.
  • Period: Jan 1, 661 to Jan 1, 750

    ISLAM: Umayyad Empire

    The Umayyad is the first Muslim empire to rule the Caliphate.
  • Jan 27, 661

    ISLAM: Ali is murdered, creating Sunni/Shia split

    Ali, the successor to Muhammad, was murdered, and the succession issues created the Sunni/Shia split that still persists to this day.
  • Jan 1, 691

    ISLAM: Dome of the Rock built in Jerusalem

    The Dome of the Rock is a shrine built when Abraham almost sacrificed his son Isaac. It is also one of the oldest works of Islamic architecture.
  • Jan 1, 732

    ENGLAND: The Venerable Bede's writing

    Bede completed his Historia ecclesiastica, which included history from Julius Caesar to St. Augustine's arrival in Kent.
  • Oct 10, 732

    FRANCE: Battle of Tours

    The Battle of Tours, led by Frankish leader Charles Martel, was between the Franks and a massive Islamic army.
  • Period: Jan 1, 750 to Jan 1, 1258

    ISLAM: Abbasid Empire

    The second of two great Muslim Empires of the Caliphate, succeeding the Umayyad Empire.
  • Period: Jan 1, 750 to Jan 1, 887

    FRANCE: The Carolingian Dynasty

    A family of Frankish aristocrats who ruled western Europe, including Charlemagne.
  • Jan 1, 751

    FRANCE: Pepin the Short

    Pepin the Short was the first Carolingian to become King of the Franks.
  • Dec 25, 800

    FRANCE: Charlemagne is crowned by the Pope

    Pope Leo III crowned Charlamagne the emperor of the Holy Roman Emperor.
  • Oct 26, 899

    ENGLAND: Alfred the Great

    Alfred the Great was the King of Wessex from the years 871 to 899. Alfred the Great is known for defeating the vikings and promoting education.
  • Jan 1, 1000


    Beowulf is a literary epic about a great Germanic warrior. The man Beowulf fights all sorts of creatures and receives fame and glory. The date it was written, 1000, is important because there are Christian themes in the book, meaning there had to have been Christians with in-depth experience of Germanic life.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1037 to Jan 1, 1194

    ISLAM: Seljuk Dynasty

    The Seljuk dynasty took control of the Holy Land in 1071. This dynasty was different than the previous two because the Seljuks were nomadic Turkish warriors.
  • Jan 1, 1054

    BYZANTINE: Schism between Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholic

    The schism between Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches happened due to an argument between Michael Cerularius and the Pope. This schism exists to this day.
  • Jan 1, 1066

    ENGLAND: Norman invasion of England

    The Norman invasion of occurred when William II, Duke of Normandy defeated Harold Godwinson and took from him the English throne. The Bayeux tapestry describes this event.
  • Jan 1, 1095

    MIDDLE AGES: Pope Urban's speech at the Council of Clermont

    Pope Urban spoke at the Council of Clermont to stir people into going on a crusade to take the Holy Land back for the Christians. He gave five reasons to go on the crusade, the most important of which being remission of sin. Urban said that if you fought in the crusade, all of your sins would be forgiven.
  • Jan 1, 1099

    MIDDLE AGES: Christians take Jerusalem in first crusade

    A successful crusade where the Crusaders besieged Jerusalem and began to form the Kingdom of Jerusalem. The conquerors massacred the inhabitants of Jerusalem after their victory.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1189 to Jan 1, 1192

    MIDDLE AGES: Third Crusade

    A crusade led by Europe to reclaim the Holy Land from Saladin, a Muslim leader.
  • Jan 1, 1200


    The Prose Edda is a collection of Norse mythology written by Snorri Stulson, a Christian. That makes the Prose Edda unique. Sturlson said man lost the name of God because Germanic people credit Germanic gods with the creation of the universe. Thor, a Germanic god, is arrogant and warlike, and he reflects the ideal German man.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1202 to Jan 1, 1204

    MIDDLE AGES: Fourth Crusade

    An expedition led by Pope Innocent III, eventually leading to the sacking of Constantinople.
  • Jan 1, 1212

    MIDDLE AGES: Children's Crusade

    As many as 30,000 children went to the Holy Land, led by a boy who wanted to convert the Muslims to Christianity peacefully. This did not work, and the children were sold to merchants and eventually taken to Tunisia or sold into slavery.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1213 to Jan 1, 1221

    MIDDLE AGES: Fifth Crusade

    A crusade led by Europe to reclaim Jerusalem and the
    Holy Land from the Muslims.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1228 to Jan 1, 1229

    MIDDLE AGES: Sixth Crusade

    After the failure of the fifth crusade, the sixth crusade was another attempt to regain Jerusalem for Europe.
  • Jan 1, 1270

    MIDDLE AGES: Eighth Crusade

    A crusade against Tunis led by Louis IX, with the ultimate goal of capturing Jerusalem for Europe. This crusade is considered a failure.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1271 to Jan 1, 1272

    MIDDLE AGES: Ninth Crusade

    Following the eighth crusade, Louis IX's son led a crusade in Acre. Along with the eighth crusade, the ninth crusade is considered the last major medieval crusade to the Holy Land
  • Jan 1, 1325

    ISLAM: Ibn Battuta left on pilgrimage to Mecca

    Ibn Battuta was one of the greatest travelers of his age. He wanted to see every part of the Muslim empire.
  • May 29, 1453

    MIDDLE AGES: Ottoman Empire takes Constantinople

    The Ottoman Empire, from Turkey, captured Constantinople, marking the end of the (Byzantine) Roman Empire.
  • MIDDLE AGES: Population growth (in Europe after ice age)

    From 1560 to 1850, Europe experienced a mini ice age, and afterward there was a population boom because the land was more inhabitable.
  • ENGLAND: The House of Wessex

    The family that originally ruled the English kingdom of Wessex.