Humanities Spring Timeline

  • 100

    Tacitus' Germania

    (Monograph on people inhabiting lands behind Rhine)
    Plenty of what we know about Germanic history evolves from the writings of Tacitus. Instead of using rumor or gossip, he only included verifiable accounts in his writings, as he was trying to give an accurate description of Germania.
  • 313

    Edict of Milan

    Constantine's establishment of religious toleration for Christianity.
  • 325

    Nicene Creed

    Constantine convening the council of Nicea to unify the Christian church with one doctrine.
  • 410

    Sacking of Rome by Alaric

    The Visigoths had attacked the city of the Rome, and this was one of the first events that lead to the downfall of Rome.
  • 410

    Legions depart

    Britain leaves Rome
  • 413

    Theodosius builds wall around Constantinople

    This establishes Constantinople as the center of the new Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire).
  • 450

    Anglo-Saxon Invasion

    (Anglo-Saxons' raid of England)
    The Anglo-Saxons could have been invited to come, or they could have come to help England defend from others.
  • 476

    Merovingian Dynasty Begins

    The start of the Merovingian Dynasty.
  • 500

    Salic Law

    (Ancient laws for the Frankish civilization)
    Salic Law's purpose was to show the price a man would have to pay for disobeying any of the rules (in other words, to prove to men that crimes were serious).
  • 509

    Reign of Clovis

    Clovis I, a Frankish King, reigned from 509-511.
  • 519

    House of Wessex

    Family that ruled kingdom known as Wessex.
  • 527

    Justinian becomes Emperor of the Byzantine Empire

    Justinian I was the eleventh emperor of the Byzantine Empire.
  • 532

    Nika Revolt

    Riot when Justinian refused to pardon two young killers.
  • 532

    Nika Revolt

    (Riot when Justinian refused to pardon two young killers)
    The Haga Sophia was able to be built because of these riots, and it expanded on the original basilican design.
  • 594

    Gregory of Tours, History of the Franks

    Writer that made history of Frankish people.
  • 594

    Gregory of Tours, History of the Franks

    (Writer that recorded history of Frankish people)
    Besides a historian, Gregory of Tours was a bishop. The bishop excused Clovis' sins because he is Christian.
  • Dec 24, 622

    Muhammed leaves Mecca for Medina

    He migrated to Medina after the death of his uncle, and many of his followers were there to help him.
  • Dec 24, 623

    Muhammed conquers Mecca

    (Muhammed takes over Mecca with the help of his followers)
    Muhammed calls out the statement "If you die, you'll go to Paradise."
  • Dec 24, 661

    Caliph Ali is murdered

    This creates the Sunni/Shia split.
  • Dec 24, 661

    Umayyad Empire Begins

    The first Muslim dynasty.
  • Dec 24, 691

    Dome of the Rock built in Jerusalem

    The shrine is built
  • Dec 24, 700

    The Venerable Bede's Writing

    Writer of three Latin hymns.
  • Dec 24, 732

    Battle of Tours and Charles Martel

    Battgle fought between Frankish forces and an Islamic army.
  • Dec 24, 750

    Umayyad Empire Ends

    The first Muslim dynasty.
  • Dec 24, 750

    Abbasid Empire Begins

    The next Muslim dynasty beings.
  • Dec 24, 750

    Merovingian Dynasty Ends

    The Merovingian Dynasty comes to an end.
  • Dec 24, 750

    The Carolingian Dynasty

    The Carolingian Dynasty was in power from 750-887.
  • Dec 24, 751

    Pepin the Short

    (He became King of the Franks in 751)
  • Dec 24, 800

    Charlemagne is crowned by Pope

    Said to be the most powerful ruler of all time.
  • Dec 24, 849

    Alfred the Great

    (Alive 50 years)
    (King of Wessex from 871 to death)
    Alfred the Great both fought the Vikings, and made peace so that the English and Vikings could settle down together.
  • Dec 24, 1000


    (Tale of a Germanic hero defeating enemies)
    The date of when this poem was written is significant because the author is determined to be Christian. The poem contains both Christian and Norse qualities.
  • Dec 24, 1054

    Schism between Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholic

    The Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches split here.
  • Dec 24, 1060

    Seljuk Dynasty

    The Dynasty goes from 1060-1307.
    The Seljuk Dynasty had control of the Holy Land from the start of the reign until 1099.
    The Seljuk Dynasty is different than the Umayyad and Abbasid because they were able to take over the Holy Land, whereas the others were did not during their reign.
  • Dec 24, 1066

    Norman Invasion of England

    (Invasion of England by Norman, Breton and French soldiers)
    The Bayeux Tapestry describes this event.
  • Dec 24, 1095

    Pope Urban's Speech at Council of Clermont

    (Speech Pope Urban gave addressing crowd to aid Greeks and recover Palestine from Muslims)
    Pope Urban gave the French these five reasons to go on a crusade: serfs can leave land, people freed from paying taxes, no interest on debt, prisoners freed, and all to have a death sentence were off the hook.
  • Dec 24, 1097

    Christians take Jerusalem in First Crusade

    (Amidst great slaughter, Christians finally breach the walls of Jerusalem on 15 July 1097)
    The conquers acted very vicious- at this point it was pure bloodshed. 70,000 Muslims were slaughtered and all the city's Jewish inhabitants were herded into a synagogue, which the Crusaders burned promptly to the ground.
  • Dec 24, 1189

    Third Crusade

    The Third Crusade lasted from 1189-1192, and it was a response to Jerusalem's fall.
  • Dec 24, 1200

    Prose Edda

    (Text on Old Norse Poetics, written by Snorri Sturlson, contains tales of Norse mythology)
    Snorri Sturlson said man lost the name of God because as people were not paying the necessary amount of respect to God, newer generations did not know their maker.
    Thor thinks very high of himself and can act selfish, and he is on the lower side of the heroic scale. He has great power, and it can go to his head. This reflects Germanic tribal values as they were more focused on the power people possessed.
  • Dec 24, 1201

    Fourth Crusade

    The Fourth Crusade lasted from 1201-1204, and it was centered in Constantinople.
  • Dec 24, 1212

    Children's Crusade

    Crusade by which European Christians expelled Muslims from the Holy Land.
  • Dec 24, 1213

    Fifth Crusade

    The Fifth Crusade lasted from 1213-1221. It was an attempt by Western Europeans to reacquire Jerusalem.
  • Dec 24, 1228

    Sixth Crusade

    The Sixth Crusade lasted from 1228-1229, and was another attempt to regain Jerusalem.
  • Dec 24, 1248

    Seventh Crusade

    The Seventh Crusade lasted from 1248-1254, and was led by Louis IX of France.
  • Dec 24, 1258

    Abbasid Empire Ends

    It is destroyed by a Mongol invasion.
  • Dec 24, 1270

    Eighth Crusade

    Launched by King Louis IX of France against the city of Tunics.
  • Dec 24, 1271

    Ninth Crusade

    The Ninth Crusade lasted from 1271-1272. This is commonly considered the last major medieval Crusade to the Holy Land.
  • Dec 24, 1325

    Ibn Battuta leaves on pilgrimage to Mecca

    This journey took sixteen months.
  • Dec 24, 1453

    Ottoman Empire takes Constantinople

    This event specifically occurred on May 29, 1453.
  • Population growth in Europe following Ice Age

    The conditions of Europe got better and so did the population.