Medieval History: The Crusades

  • Jan 1, 1050

    Peter the Hermit

    Peter the Hermit was born c. 1050
  • Period: Jan 1, 1095 to Dec 31, 1099

    The First Crusade

  • Nov 1, 1095

    First Crusade

    Pope Urban II calls the First Crusade in November, 1095 to the town of Clermont, central France.
  • Jan 1, 1096

    Peter the Hermit and 20000 peasants.

    In 1096 Peter the Hermit collected 20000 peasants and led them on the people's crusade looking for a place in heaven. THese peasants were undisciplined and unexperienced with fighted and as they travelled through Europe fights broke out and the peasants start looting.
    When the pilgrims reached Constantinople, Emperor Alexius became very overwhelmed by their numbers and behaviour so he moved away to Turkey. When the pilgrims reached Turkey many were slaughtered by the well trained Turkish soldier
  • Jan 1, 1096

    The First Crusaders

    1096 a more organized force (the first crusaders) four different armies led by the princes of Europe, each set out for Constantinople.
  • Jun 1, 1097

    The City of Nicaea.

    In 1097, June, the Crusaders were accompanied by the Greek Orthodox forces and took the city of Nicaea.
  • Jun 1, 1097

    The Holy Lance, Antioch

    June, 1097, the Crusaders took control of what they believed was a piece of the Holy Lance, Antioch. After a while the Crusaders decided to march out of the city to the Islamic armies led by the Turks, the Arabic princes di not feel like dying so the Turkish armies slowy melted away. The Crusaders then moved onto Jerusalem.
  • Jul 1, 1099

    The Crusader States

    1099, July, the Crusaders slaughtered the Muslim and Jewish defenders of Jerusalem and the number of Crusader States were established.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1101 to Jan 1, 1200

    Crusade States lost ground

    During the 12th century the Crusade States lost ground to the Ayyubid sultan Saladin
  • Jul 8, 1115

    Peter the Hermit died

  • Jan 1, 1137

    Saladin the Muslim leader was born

  • Jan 1, 1144

    The Crusader State of Edessa

    In 1144 the Crusader State of Edessa fell to the ruler Zengi, Pope Eugenis III prompted it as a call for the Second Crusade.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1145 to Dec 31, 1149

    The Second Crusade

  • Jan 1, 1147

    The Islamic Empire

    1147 - After the crusaders attacked Jerusalem they controlled a narrow coastal strip of land in the heart of the Islamic Empire and divided the land amongst themselves. Though most of northern states were lost. Some crusaders contined to fight and split into two orders. 1100 - the knights of St John the Hospitaller and 1123 - the knights of Templar.
  • Jan 1, 1147

    Expedition to the Holy Land

    THe expedition to the Holy Land was disastrous, they were repeatedly attacked by the Seljuk Turks as they crossed Asia Minor. A group of Anglo-Norman, Flemish and Rhineland Crusaders entered Damascus in 1147, however they were forced to retreat four days later.
  • Jan 1, 1157

    Richard I of England was born

  • Jun 1, 1187

    Fall of nearly all of the Crusader States

    In June 1187 the Ayyubid sultan Saladin had a terrible defeat at Hattin. This led to the fall of nearly all of the Crusader States.
  • Jan 1, 1189

    The Third Crusade was called

  • Jan 1, 1189

    Richard became king of England

  • Period: Jan 1, 1189 to Dec 31, 1192

    The Third Crusade

  • Jan 1, 1190

    Pope Gregroy VII and the Third Crusade

    Pope Gregory VII was called for the Third Crusade to win back Jerusalem in 1190.
  • Jan 1, 1191

    Philip Augustus and Richard I

    Philip Augustus of France and Richard I of England took their armies by sea from the south coast of France to the city of Acre in the Holy Land in 1191.
  • Jan 1, 1192

    Richard tries to reclaim Jerusalem

    1192 - Richards efforts to reclaim Jerusalem failed and the Holy City remained under Muslim control. So Richard agreed on a truce with Saladin.
  • Jan 1, 1193

    RIchard was shipwrecked on his way home

  • Mar 4, 1193

    Saladin passes away

  • Apr 6, 1199

    RIchard was killed

  • Jan 1, 1200

    Muslims controlled the route across Turkey

    !200 - Muslims controlled thr land route across Turkey. THe Crusaders spent three days rampaging in Constantinople.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1201 to Jan 1, 1300

    Mongol invaders and the Mamluks

    The Mongol invaders and the rise of the Mamluks as an appearance meant that the crusaders' grip on the Holy Land had weakened during the 13th century.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1202 to Dec 31, 1204

    The Fourth Crusade

  • Jan 1, 1204

    New Latin Empire

    1204 Warriors of the Fourth Crusade reached the walls of Constantinople, the city was attacked and the Byzantine Christians were slaughtered and a new Latine Empire was established
  • Jan 1, 1213

    Pope Innocent III called the Fifth Crusade

  • Period: Jan 1, 1213 to Dec 31, 1221

    The Fifth Crusade

  • Jan 1, 1221

    City of Damietta

    Having captured the city of Damietta, the crusaders; advance was stopped after failing to retrieve land from Cairo in 1221, they eventually retreated having manage to secure no land.
  • Jan 1, 1228

    Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II

    Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, was excommunicated for not partiicpatting in the Fifth Crusade, had managed to negotiate the return of Jerusalem to Christian hands in 1228.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1228 to Dec 31, 1229

    The Sixth Crusade

  • Jan 1, 1244

    Jerusalem returned to Muslim hands

    1244 Jerusalem returned to Muslim hands, Louis IX of France led the Seventh Crusade to Egypt as a response.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1248 to Dec 31, 1254

    The Seventh Crusade

  • Jan 1, 1250

    Battle of Mansourah

    Louis IX's forces were defeated by the Ayyubids at the Battle of Mansourah in 1250.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1270 to Dec 31, 1270

    The Eighth Crusade

  • Period: Jan 1, 1271 to Jan 1, 1272

    The Ninth Crusade

  • Jan 1, 1291

    End of Christians hold on the Holy Land

    The ending of the Christians hold on the Holy Land was in 1291 when the Sultan al-Ashref destroyed the city of Acre.
  • Jan 1, 1312

    Order of the Knights Templar

    In 1312, one of the era's great instiutions were brought down with the supression of the Order of the Knights Templar.
  • Jan 1, 1453

    Constantinople was captured by the Ottoman Turks