Middle Ages

  • 100

    GERMAN TRIBES: Tacitus Germania

    This is the main description of early Germans. Tacitus is trying to show faults of current Romans
  • 313

    EARLY CHRISTIAN: Edict of Milan

    Edict of Milan, a proclamation that permanently established religious toleration for Christianity within the Roman Empire
  • 325

    EARLY CHRISTIAN: Nicean Creed

    unified beliefs of Christians at time, created Holy Trinity
  • 410

    GERMANIC: Sacking of Rome

    Alaric and Visigothic tribe sacked Rome, showing how far the tribes had gone
  • 413

    BYZANTINE: Theodosius' Walls

    These double thick walls helped keep Constantinople out of Muslim hands until 1453 with Ottoman empire
  • Period: 476 to Dec 25, 750

    FRANCE: The Merovingian Dynasty

    The first Frankish Dynasty who grew to significance under Clovis and his conversion to Christianity
  • 509

    FRANCE: Clovis

    The uniting King of the Franks who converted to Christianity and provided a military arm for the Roman Catholic Church
  • 511

    FRANCE: The Salic Law

    One of the earliest legal codes of the Germanic Tribes which gives up a record of Germanic values and the concept of wergeld
  • 527

    BYZANTINE: Justinian becomes Emperor

    Justinian expands Byzantine to greatest extent, tries to re-link two halves of Roman Empire and builds Hagia Sophia
  • 532

    BYZANTINE: Nika REvolt

    Hagia Sophia - Clash of Christian and Muslim iconography
  • 550

    ENGLAND: The Legions depart

    The Britannia commoners who were used to Roman rule were left to their own devices as Roman legions left England
  • 550

    ENGLAND: Anglo-Saxon Invasion

    These Germanic tribes were invited to Britain as hired defense but when they were not paid they conquered the territories and settled there themselves.
  • 591

    FRANCE: Gregory of Tours

    Cleric of the church- wanted to make any ruler who was Christian be portrayed in positive light
  • Dec 24, 622

    ISLAM: Muhammad leaves Mecca for Medina

    Most of Muhammad's followers were already in Medina and when he arrived the city under his rule became the beginning of Islam
  • Dec 24, 629

    ISLAM: Muhammad conquers Mecca

    Die in protection of Islam and you will go to heaven
  • Dec 24, 661

    ISLAM: Ali is murdered

    His death created a succession issue between line of Muhammad and Imams
  • Period: Dec 24, 661 to Dec 25, 750

    ISLAM: Umayyad Empire

    First caliphate and rulers of Islamic faith after the death of Muhammad
  • Period: Dec 24, 661 to Dec 25, 750

    ISLAM: Umayyad Empire

    2nd of 4 major Islamic Caliphates with its capital at Demascus
  • Dec 24, 691

    ISLAM: Dome of the Rock is Built

    Built over the site of Abraham's sacrifice of Issac. Holy place for Islamic Faith
  • Dec 24, 731

    ENGLAND: The Venerable Bead’s Writing

    Created the earliest history of the people of Britain
  • Dec 24, 732

    FRANCE: Battle of Tours

    Charles Martel with his Frankish army defeated the Islamic Moorish army and solidified Frankish power
  • Period: Dec 24, 750 to Dec 25, 1258

    ISLAM: Abbasid Empire

    succeeded the Umayyad Caliphate and is 3rd major Caliphate. Center the capital on Bagdhad
  • Period: Dec 24, 750 to Dec 25, 887

    FRANCE: The Carolingian Dynasty

    The Frankish Dynasty that followed the Merovingian Dynasty and ruled large parts of western Europe
  • Dec 24, 751

    FRANCE: Pepin the Short

    Becomes King of the Franks with the blessing of the Pope as the king should be the one who has power
  • Dec 25, 800

    FRANCE: Charlemagne is crowned by Pope

    This was a defining moment in history as it cemented Charlemagne's power but also gave much power to papal authority as the crowning figure
  • Period: Dec 24, 871 to Dec 25, 899

    ENGLAND: Alfred the Great

    Defeating the vikings and his scholarly works
  • Period: Dec 24, 871 to Dec 25, 1066

    ENGLAND: The House of Wessex

    The rule of the Anglo-Saxon Kings of England
  • Dec 24, 1000

    MIDDLE AGES: Population Growth

    Population growth due to end of ice age- more food means more people spending time doing other things than farming
  • Dec 24, 1000

    GERMANIC: Beowulf

    Beowulf is fusion of Christianity and Norse Mythology
  • Period: Dec 24, 1037 to Dec 25, 1194

    ISLAM: Selijuk Dynasty

    Persecuted Pilgrims, lead to the first crusade being called by Pope Urban II
  • Dec 24, 1054

    BYZANTINE: Schism

    Official break between Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholic when the pope excommunicates the Bishop of Constatinople
  • Dec 24, 1066

    ENGLAND: Norman Invasion of England

    bayeux tapestry
  • Nov 11, 1095

    MIDDLE AGES: Urban II Speech at Clermont

    Started the crusade. Go for remission of sins...
  • Dec 24, 1099

    MIDDLE AGES: Christians take Jerusalem in First Crusade

    Christian crusaders killed Muslim, Jews and Christians a like
  • Period: Dec 24, 1189 to Dec 25, 1192

    MIDDLE AGES: Third Crusade

    King Richard of England leads crusade to take back Jerusalem after Saladin conquers it.
  • Dec 24, 1200

    GERMANIC: Prose Edda

    Lost the name of God so that he can discuss the Nose mythology and not write heretical beliefs. Thor is angry god who is worship for his battle skills
  • Period: Dec 24, 1202 to Dec 25, 1204

    MIDDLE AGES: Forth Crusade

    Called by Pope Innocent III to take Jerusalem through Egypt, instead they sack Constantinople
  • Dec 24, 1212

    MIDDLE AGES: Children's Crusade

    Disastrous crusade of children who were killed or sold into slavery well before they reached the holy land
  • Period: Dec 24, 1213 to Dec 25, 1221

    MIDDLE AGES: Fifth Crusade

    Lead by King Andrew II of Hungry and Leopold VI of Austia but were unsuccessful and there was decisive Ayyubid victory. Lead to eight-year truce between the Ayyubids and the Crusaders
  • Period: Dec 24, 1228 to Dec 25, 1229

    MIDDLE AGES: Sixth Crusade

    Diplomatic Crusader victory where Jerusalem, Nazareth, Bethlehem were relinquished to Crusaders
  • Dec 24, 1270

    MIDDLE AGES: Eighth Crusade

    Crusade launched by Louis IX of France against Tunis, but Louis died soon after and crusade was failure
  • Period: Dec 24, 1271 to Dec 25, 1272

    MIDDLE AGES: Ninth Crusade

    Henry III of England sails to Acre and had several impressive victors over the Baibars but ultimately had to withdraw due to issues in England
  • Dec 24, 1325

    ISLAM: Ibn Battuta

    World traveler and left lasting legacy of world travel and pilgrimage to Mecca
  • Dec 24, 1453

    MIDDLE AGES: Fall of Constantinople

    Official end of the Byzantine empire and finally allowed a Muslim state to extend across the Bosporus straights into Europe