Crusades

Muslim and Christian Conflicts: The Crusades

By gou4055
  • Jan 1, 1000

    Death of Muhammad pt. 1

    Death of Muhammad pt. 1
    The prophet Muhammad died in 632. Over the following centuries, Islam rapidly spread throughout surrounding countries and regions. It's important to note that the terms "Islam" and "Muslim" were not used at the time. Instead, they were referred to as "Saracen," as I will also be referring to them as.
  • Jan 1, 1000

    Death of Muhammad pt. 2

    Death of Muhammad pt. 2
    The Saracens were able to live in peace with Christians and Jews through much of history. There were times of conflict though, particularly during the Medieval Ages. In 733, the Franks, of the Eastern empire, and the Saracen Moors fought in the Battle of Tours. This even would come to foreshadow the coming Crusades.
  • Period: Jun 1, 1000 to Jun 1, 1300

    Muslim and Christian Conflcts in the Middle Ages

    This 200-year timeline will capture the Crusade Wars, highlighting the important events in Islamic history.
  • Jun 6, 1054

    Great Schism pt. 1

    Great Schism pt. 1
    Prior to the 11th century, there were various power struggles in Palestine. There were also religious and economic struggles within Europe. The primary conflict was the Great Schism of Western (Roman) and Eastern (Orthodox) Europe.
  • Jun 6, 1054

    Great Schism pt. 2

    Great Schism pt. 2
    Pope Leo IX led the Western countries, primarily Rome, while Michael Cerularius ruled over Constantinople for the Eastern countries. Their conflicting views on religion, leadership, and economy led to unease between Europe and surrounding countries.
  • Jan 1, 1095

    First Crusade pt. 1

    First Crusade pt. 1
    Though the Eastern and Western countries didn't see eye-to-eye, they did agree that they needed to regain control of Palestine. The Europen countries would proceed to send large war parties to the Holy Land to reclaim Christian control. Palestine itself went through power struggles and changed hands often through the centuries.
  • Jan 1, 1095

    First Crusade pt. 2

    First Crusade pt. 2
    Everyone from the Jews to Christians to Saracens had control of Palestine at some point. But it was Pope Urban II that decided to launch the First Crusade to reclaim Christian control. It wasn't just about religion and allowing Christians to have renewed access to Jerusalem, the capital city of Palestine--it was also about politics, power and land.
  • Jul 15, 1099

    Invasion of Palestine pt. 1

    Invasion of Palestine pt. 1
    Christians from the Eastern and Western countries began their trek to the Holy Lands. They traveled primarily along the Mediterranean coast to avoid Italy, where previous battles left them physically and mentally scarred. Their journey led them through many Jewish villages. They plundered and destryoed virtually everything and everyone in their path.
  • Jul 15, 1099

    Invasion of Palestine pt. 2

    Invasion of Palestine pt. 2
    When their army finally reached Jerusalem, they battled in the Fatimid Caliphate. The Shi'a warriors, led by descendants of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah, did not want the Christians within the city. Extreme carnage ensued and the Crusades continued for centuries to come.
  • Jan 1, 1147

    Second Crusade pt. 1

    Second Crusade pt. 1
    The Second Crusade began in 1147. Dozens of wars and crusades followed in 1189, 1202, 1217, 1248, and 1269. It became clear that the conquests weren't about religion anymore. Things like politics, power and revenge played into the equation. Another dangerous aspect was its acceptance. It got to the point in European cultures that warfare was encouraged and even taught about in church.
  • Jan 1, 1147

    Second Crusade pt. 2

    Second Crusade pt. 2
    Folks were encouraged to fight, being told that it would absolve them of their sins. Bernard of Clairvaux was one of those dangerous leaders, preaching to his subjects that God also encouraged these battles and bloodshed. In Palestine, power was still changing hands; pretty much going back and forth through the various wars and crusades.
  • Jan 1, 1187

    Saladin

    Saladin
    In the Battle of Hattin, Saracen leader Saladin retook Jerusalem from Christian control. In a situation where he could've been cruel and avenging, he instead acted with dignity and respect. His kindness to the Christians and Jews in the area left a lasting impression on him and those who were technically defeated. He allowed them to enter the now Saracen-controlled city.
  • Jan 1, 1219

    Treaty Attempts pt. 1

    Treaty Attempts pt. 1
    In between battles over the years, Francis of Assissi, an Italian friar, tried to lead peace treaties in Damietta with the Sultan of Egypt. Though their negotiations were unseccessful, the kindness shown by both sides left a lasting impression on them. Their treaty would have benefited and saved the Saracens while keeping integrity in the Christian regions.
  • Jan 1, 1219

    Treaty Attempts pt. 2

    Treaty Attempts pt. 2
    Francis was so touched by the civility of the Saracens and Egyptian Sultan that when he would go on to write his "Rule of Life" for the Franciscans, he would include a couple chapters on their actions. Many brothers decided to stay and live alongside the Saracens in peace and with respect.
  • Jan 1, 1228

    Sixth Crusade pt. 1

    Sixth Crusade pt. 1
    The Sixth Crusade was launched in 1228. Emperor Frederick II proposed a peace treaty that would allow Saracen control over the sacred places within Jerusalem, but Christian rule over all other areas.
  • Jan 1, 1228

    Sixth Crusade pt. 2

    Sixth Crusade pt. 2
    This treaty was short lived as Frederick was excommunicated. King Theobald I of Navarre followed up by another unsuccessful battle with the Saracens. His solution was to simply return territory and crusade armies to their homes, which did not sit well with the crusaders. At this point, the Saracens still had control over the Kingdom of Jerusalem, as its now established as.
  • Jan 1, 1272

    Robin Hood pt. 1

    Robin Hood pt. 1
    Though he might be a ficticious character, I wanted to include Robin Hood in this timeline. I know for myself, I remember hearing about the Crusades from watching various adaptations of the story of Robin Hood. It's one of my favorites.
  • Jan 1, 1272

    Robin Hood pt. 2

    Robin Hood pt. 2
    Robin Hood tried to defend Nottingham and surrounding communities that are under the tyranny of Guy of Gisborne and the SHeriff while King Richard was in the Holy Lands fishing in the Crusades, or the Holy Wars. In some adpatations, Robin is even involved in the Holy Wars and returns home distraught but still willing to help his home land. This might be a helpful marker in the Crusade timeline for those who are familiar with the story of Robin Hood.
  • Jan 1, 1291

    Last Crusade pt. 1

    Last Crusade pt. 1
    The Last Crusade was launched in 1291. After centuries of fighting, the Saracens fainlly would reign victorious. The crusaders fell to the Saracen armies in the Fall, or Siege, of Acre. Over the next decade or so, they would rid the Kingdom of Jerusalem of all the crusaders and Christian inhabitants.
  • Jan 1, 1291

    Last Crusade pt. 2

    Last Crusade pt. 2
    In 1302-1303, after the Siege of Ruad, the crusaders were officially eliminated and the crusades were over. The Saracen forces heavily influenced education, politics, and religion over the centuries in which the crusades spanned. Though there were would be various power struggles between the Muslims and other religions or armies, the Muslims would come out of the Medieval Ages as victors.