The Kingdoms of the Middle Ages

  • 100

    EARLY CHRISTIAN: Tacitus' Germania

    This compared the Romans to the German warriors. Tried to make the Germans sound better than the Romans.
  • 313

    EARLY CHRISTIAN: Edict of Milan

    The Christians were no longer prosecuted.
  • 325

    EARLY CHRISTIAN: Nicence Creed

    Unified by different people that were thought to be worshipping wrong and provided orthodoxy.
  • 400

    BYZANTINE: Theodisius builds wall

    This was a defensive move for Constantinople and solidifies it as capitol city
  • 410

    EARLY CHRISTIAN: Sacking of Rome by Alaric

    The Visigoths who were led by King Alaric, who destroyed what is left of Rome
  • 410

    ENGLAND: Legions depart

    The Romans leave England to protect their Empire. Germanic tribes invaded against the remaining and defenseless English and Romans.
  • Period: 457 to Dec 25, 752

    FRANCE: The Merovingian Dynasty

    A Frankish empire that included many famous emperors such as Clovis and Pepin the Short.
  • 500

    FRANCE: The Salic Law

    Laws that were made by the King of the Franks. The main goal of these laws were to stop wergelds which would stop the fighting.
  • 519

    ENGLAND: The House of Wessex

    A family tree of Alfred the Great that shows the lineage all the way down to Edward the Congessor
  • 527

    BYZANTINE: Justinian Becomes Emperor

    Justinian tries to reconquer Western Rome.
  • 532

    BYZANTINE: Nika Revolt

    The Nika Revolt happened when Justinian refused to pardon two killers who escaped their hanging. Built for the Christians but adopted by the Muslims.
  • 591

    ENGLAND: Anglo-Saxon Invasion

    The Anglo-Saxons ended up traveling to England because England needed people to protect their people so they hired them and "forgot to pay them".
  • 591

    FRANCE: Gregory of Tours/ History of the Franks

    Gregory of Tours was a historian and bishop. Clovis was not a Christian until his wife Clotilde convinced him to convert.
  • Dec 24, 624

    ISLAM: Muhammed conquers Mecca

    The main idea that came from this was that if you die in battle, you went to Paradise.
  • Dec 24, 661

    ISLAM: Foundation of Islam

    Muhhamed leaves Mecca after being warned of an assassination plot
  • Dec 24, 661

    ISLAM: Sunni/ Shia split

    When Ali is murdered, which led the Muslims into splitting into two religious groups, the Sunni and the Shia
  • Dec 24, 691

    ISLAM: Dome of the Rock

    One of the oldest works of Islamic architecture which was built during the Umayyed Empire.
  • Dec 24, 731

    ENGLAND: The Venerable Bede's Writing

    Wrote commentaries on the Pentateuch, historical works and biographies. Most known for his work, HISTORICA ECCLESIASTICA, which was about the history of the English Church.
  • Dec 24, 750

    ISLAM: Umayyad Empire

    The Umayyed Empire ruled the empire of Caliphate until they were defeated by the Byzantine empire
  • Period: Dec 24, 750 to Dec 25, 1258

    ISLAM: The Abbasid Empire

    The Abbasid Empire ruled the empire from Baghdad.
  • Dec 24, 799

    FRANCE: Charlemagne is crowned by Pope

    Charlemagne was crowned Emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo the II on Christmas Eve. He was the first Frankish King to become an Emperor of the Roman empire.
  • Period: Dec 24, 800 to Dec 25, 924

    FRANCE: Carolingian Dynasty

    This dynasty had a long rise to power and eventually Charlemagne became the Emperor of Rome, which helped to make the dynasty stronger and last. However, the dynasty started to decline when Charlemagne died.
  • Dec 24, 849

    ENGLAND: Alfred the Great

    Lived from 849-899 CE. He defended against the vikings and was considered the "British Charlemagne".
  • Dec 24, 1000

    MIDDLE AGES: Population Growth (in Europe after ice age)

    There was a raise in temperature, which resulted in economic and agricultural growth.
  • Dec 24, 1000


    An epic poem about a German king and was written during the movement of Christianity, which is important for fully understanding the poem because of references to the religion
  • Period: Dec 24, 1050 to Dec 25, 1194

    ISLAM: Seljuk Dynsaty

    The difference about this dynasty from the previous two was that they had no Islamic influence
  • Dec 24, 1054

    BYZANTINE: The Great Schism

    East and West Rome are split up because of the power struggles and religious views
  • Dec 24, 1066

    Norman Invasion of England

    Duke William of Normandy and Harold Godwinson fought in the Battle of Hastings which resulted in a Norman conquest. The tapestry that describes this even is called the Bayeux Tapestry and it is an embroidered cloth that goes on for nearly 70 meters
  • Dec 24, 1095

    MIDDLE AGES: Pope Urban's Speech at Council of Clermont

    Pope Urban's speech took place in Rome in 1095. He made a speech because he wanted to start a crusade and the significance in this speech is because this is how the crusades started. Five reasons to go on a crusade are: 1) to stop Muslims from being in the Holy Land. 2) To purge the land from uncleanliness (the Muslims - wanted to kick them out). 3) Population 4) Wanted to take land from the Muslims. 5) To undertake a journey for remission.
  • Jul 15, 1097

    MIDDLE AGES: Christians take Jerusalem in First Crusade

    The Christians took Jerusalem by storm and slaughtered 70,000 Muslims. The conquers acted "un-Christian" because they killed many unarmed Muslims.
  • Period: Dec 24, 1189 to Dec 25, 1192

    MIDDLE AGES: Third Crusade

    The reasons for the Third Crusade were to get revenge on Saladin (Saladin enslaved Christians, to have a better education and for their beliefs. What started out as a battle for the holy land ended in a truce.
  • Dec 24, 1200


    Norse mythology, not Christianity. Snorri Sturlson ignores his Christian beliefs.
  • Period: Dec 24, 1202 to Dec 25, 1204

    MIDDLE AGES: Fourth Crusade

    A Muslim-controlled invasion through Egypt, which resulted in the Muslims sacking the city of Constantinople.
  • Dec 24, 1212

    MIDDLE AGES: Children's Crusade

    Christians were said to have expelled the muslims from the holy land
  • Period: Dec 24, 1213 to Dec 25, 1221

    MIDDLE AGES: Fifth Crusade

    The Western Europeans try to take back the holy land.
  • Period: Dec 24, 1228 to Dec 25, 1229


    Began 7 years after the Fifth Crusade. This crusade resulted in the Kingdom of Jerusalem regaining control of the holy land.
  • Dec 24, 1270

    MIDDLE AGES: Eighth Crusade

    Louis IX of France against the city of Tunis
  • Period: Dec 24, 1271 to Dec 25, 1272

    MIDDLE AGES: Ninth Crusade

    Last crusade for the holy land. Resulted in the king of England's son, Edward, conquering the holy land.
  • Dec 24, 1326

    ISLAM: Ibn Battuta left on pilgrimage to Mecca

    Iba Battuta leaves for Mecca and travels through many places, including Alexandria, Cairo, Damascus, Tunis, etc. Eventually makes it to Mecca four days after he visited the tomb of Muhammad.
  • May 29, 1453

    MIDDLE AGES: Ottoman Empire Takes Constantinople

    Constantinople was taken over by the Ottoman Empire. Led by Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II.