Medieval History

  • Period: 251 to 356

    St Antony

    1st monk - went into desert to live simpler life away from temporal/worldly affairs
    Helps the birth and spread of monasticism
  • Period: Jun 13, 1073 to Jun 13, 1085

    Gregory VII

    Frankish Pope
    Part of Gregorian Reform - contained the Investiture Controversy
    Who will choose bishop?
    Emperor vs Pope? Underlying issue of power
    Gave power and loyalty to Hengry IV in exchange for power to choose/name bishops BUT Hengry IV still had power to veto any decision of Gregory's
  • Period: Jun 13, 1079 to Jun 13, 1142

    Peter Abelard

    1st university professor - one of early scholastics
    1121 - Sic et Non (Yes and No) provided methodological outline of comparing scholarly sources
  • Period: Jun 13, 1084 to Jun 13, 1105

    Henry IV

    French king - excommunicated
    One of the most powerful emperors yet he was so humbled by Pope Gregory VII that he was brought to his knees
    Nobles did not like that he surrendered to papacy so chose new emperor which he fought off for years
    Even at its height - there cannot be a strong emperor and papacy at the same time
  • Jun 13, 1095

    1st Crusade

    Urban II ordered it to recapture Jerusalem from Muslims
    Only one Crusaders won - brutallly done
    Established crusader states
  • Period: Jun 13, 1096 to Jun 13, 1204


    Centuries of animosity between East and West/ Christians and Muslims
    No lasting presence in Holy Land
  • Period: Jun 13, 1096 to Jun 13, 1164

    Peter Lombard

    Applied comparisons to sources using Abelard's outline
    1150 - Senteniae - his work turned into a huge theological textbook
    Wanted to disqualify some originally trusted works and keep others
  • Jun 13, 1100

    Rise of towns

    Fall of feudalism incrased trade routes (no longer protected by their lords)
    situated around water and where jobs were created
    Led to overcrowding, competition, violence
  • Jun 13, 1121

    Sic et Non (Yes and No)

    By Peter Abelard
    Gave methodological outline for comparing scholarly sources
  • Jun 13, 1122

    Concordat of Worms

    Bishop pays homage to king as his lord - gave loyalty
    stopped fighting between papacy/empire - but not a resolution
    facade of power to papacy - king still technically has all the power
  • Period: Jun 13, 1145 to Jun 13, 1149

    2nd Crusade

    Because crusader state of Edessa fell
    Weak support from home/ trouble getting efforts unified
    Led to the fall of Jerusalem again/ultimately the 3rd Crusade
    Huge morale boost for Muslims
  • Period: Jun 13, 1154 to Jun 13, 1189

    Henry II

    First pantagenet King of England
    Made legal changes to English Common Law
    Plantagenet dynasty - sophistication of government - administration a lot smaller prior to plantagenists - bureaucracies develop - strengthened English Common Law
  • Period: Jun 13, 1166 to Jun 13, 1216

    King John

    Lost a bunch of land to France
    Made barons in Britain very angry - led to creation of Magna Carta
  • Jun 13, 1187

    Saladin - Jerusalem falls to him

    Leader of finally united Muslims in 3rd Crusade
    1187 - Jerusalem falls to him befor 3rd Crusade
    Returns holy land to Muslim power by retaking Jerusalem
    Reunites Muslims (even though they fall apart later)
  • Period: Jun 13, 1190 to Jun 13, 1214

    Phillip II

    King of France (not king of franks)
    Unified France
  • Period: Jun 13, 1198 to Jun 13, 1216

    Innocent III

    Council of the Lateran (1215) decided there could not be any new relicious groupings without authorization of the pope
    Helps unify and strengthen pope's power
  • Jun 13, 1204

    Sacking of Constantinople (aka. 4th Crusade)

    4th Crusade - attacked and plundered constantinople for resources
    Never reached Jerusalem
    Weakened Byzantine states and survival chances
    Drove East and West further apart
  • Jun 13, 1209

    Franciscans - Friars

    Friars who believed in living just as Christ did and live with/as the poor
    First time you see want/need to not live in monasteries and its confines
    Provided the instinct which led to universal success (SOUTHERN)
  • Jun 13, 1209


    Friars who still lived in monasteries
    Most went into schools, became professors, and practiced theology
    Main concern was converting heretics to Christianity
    Provided the intellect which led to universal success (SOUTHERN)
  • Period: Jun 13, 1209 to Jun 13, 1229

    Albigensian Crusade

    Cathar Crusade
    Inatiated by Innocent III to eradicate heresy of Cathars
    Cathars had a good and an evil god - both equal and indestructable
    Destroyed Cathar Christianity - cleaned out significant portions of France
  • Jun 13, 1215

    Council of the Lateran

    Innocent III
    Decided there could not be any new relicious groupings without authorization of the pope
    Helps unify and strengthen pope's power
  • Period: Jun 13, 1215 to Jun 13, 1250

    Frederick II

    German emperor AKA antichrist; huge thorn in papacy's side
    5th and 6th crusades
    kept germany and italy from uniting
  • Jun 13, 1270

    Thomas Aquinas (Summa Theologiae)

    Combines reason and faith
    Dominican Dr. of the Church
    More detail than Lombard in comparing and disqualifying theological sources
    Gave proposition, answer, response
  • Period: Jan 1, 1294 to Jan 1, 1303

    Boniface VIII

    Roman Pope
    Papal Bull - unam sanctum
    Last attempt at papal supremacy but discredited it
    Diminished papal power extremely (already diminishing)
  • Period: Jun 13, 1308 to Jun 13, 1321

    Dante Alighieri (La Divina Commedia)

    Fictional journey through hell/purgatory/heaven
    ("Divina" added to title by Bocaccio later)
    Contributed to renaissance
    Founder of Italian language - change from fancy Latin
    Crystalizes/standardizes Italian language
  • Period: Jun 13, 1309 to Jun 13, 1403

    Avignon - Too many popes

    Pope and antipope lived here during this time
    Connects to Schism (having multiple popes at once)
  • Period: Jun 13, 1348 to Jun 13, 1350

    Black Death

    Killed 1/3 of Europe's population
    Fleas and rats
    Eliminated overcrowding - survivors had economic flourishing
  • Period: Jun 13, 1378 to Jun 13, 1417

    The Great Schism

    2 popes elected
    Confusion leads to electing a 3rd pope
    Council of Constance (1417) - Eventually 2 step down (one didn't, but they ignored him and he eventually gave up)
    weakened papacy due to lack of unification
  • Jun 13, 1417

    Council of Constance

    During The Great Schism
    2 popes step down and the 3rd pope is recognized as the actual one
  • Period: to

    ?Henry IV?

    Wrong Henry IV?
  • Rule of Benedict

    Based of St Benedict
    move to simpler way of life and monastatic reform
    set precedent for years to come of how the Western Church operates
  • Cluniac Reform

    William I commissions the Cluny Abbey
    Called for their abbots and monks to answer to the pope
    First time monasteries were set up to answer to the pope alone
    Another move away from worldly affairs and back toward simplistic, spiritual life
  • Period: to

    Holy Roman Empire

    Not holy, roman, or empire