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Middle Ages

  • 100

    Germanic Tribes : Tacitus' Germania

    A primary source that depicts the nature of Germanic tribes as well as the decline of the Roman Empire through comparing the Romans to these "barbaric" tribes
  • 313

    Early Christian: Edict of Milan

    A decree issued by Constantine that declared the tolerance of all religions.
  • 325

    Early Christian: Nicene Creed

    A statement of the orthodox Christian faith that traces back to the time of the Council of Nicea.
  • 408

    Byzantine: Theodosius II builds a great wall around Constantinople, establishing it as the center of the new Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire)

    This would allow for Constantinople to stand strong more many years as well as allow attempts over the years in trying to gain back the Western part of the Roman empire.
  • 410

    England: Legions depart

    The Romans leave England in hopes of protecting other more valuable parts of the Empire as a whole. Remaining English and Romans were defenseless against the incoming invading Germanic tribes.
  • Period: 476 to May 15, 750

    France: The Merovingian Dynasty

    Frankish Dynasty created by Childeric I
  • 511

    France: The Salic Law

    A code of law issued during the reign of Clovis.
  • 527

    Byzantine: Justinian becomes Emperor of the Byzantine empire

    Justinian was allowed to conquer much territory, with the help of his influential wife Theodora, being the last emperor in the succession to try to gain back the Western part of the Empire.
  • 532

    Byzantine: Nika Revolt

    A series of riots that broke out through political factions in chariot races which caused a lot of destruction. However, this destruction allowed for the Hagia Sophia to be built, which has an iconography of both Christianity and Islam.
  • 550

    England: Anglo Saxon Invasion

    The Anglo Saxon invasion occurred due to anger caused by Vortigern who neglected to pay the tribes after using them for his own military advantage.
  • 591

    France: Gregory of Tours, History of the Franks

    A history of the Frankish people written by Gregory of Tours in an ecclesiastical viewpoint excusing the crimes of religious Frankish kings, which allowed him to write about King Clovis in a good light.
  • May 14, 622

    Islam: Muhammad leaves Mecca for Medina/ Foundation of Islam

    Here, Muhammad had a vision to unify all of the people into one Muslim tribe.
  • May 14, 630

    Islam: Muhammad conquers Mecca

    Muhammad returns and creates an army of Muslims to advance towards Mecca. During this conquest, Muhammad called out the dangerous statement "He who dies valiantly in battle, will be rewarded in heaven" which has lead to the thinking of Jihad, wrong ideas about Islam.
  • Period: May 14, 661 to May 15, 750

    Islam: Umayyad Empire

  • Jan 1, 691

    Islam: Dome of the Rock built in Jerusalem

    Believed that Muhammad ascended into heaven here.
  • May 14, 731

    England:The Venerable Bead's Writing

    The Venerable Bead's writing captures his skilled story telling in English storytelling, which allowed Bead to become a great historian as well as use his talent to write propaganda for the church.
  • Period: May 14, 750 to May 15, 1258

    Islam: The Abbasid Empire

  • Period: May 14, 750 to May 15, 887

    France: The Carolingian Dynasty

    Dynasty of Frankish aristocrats that established rule in Western Europe
  • Period: May 14, 800 to May 15, 1192

    Islam: Seljuk Dynasty

    A dynasty centered in modern- day Turkey that took over the Holy Land during the 9th century who threatened the Byzantine Empire with their existence.
  • Dec 25, 800

    France: Charlemagne is crowned by Pope

    This event gave Pope more power, especially over emperors.
  • May 14, 849

    England: Alfred the Great

    Alive from 849-899 CE, philosopher prince that translated Roman work to Anglo Saxons.
  • Mar 9, 900

    Germanic Tribes: Beowulf

    A literary epic poem that reflects Anglo Saxons' culture and values. Written in the 10th century, Beowulf depicts religious syncretism between Christianity and Norse Mythology.
  • May 14, 1054

    Byzantine: Schism between Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholic

    Along with this separation of both churches, followed a series of excommunications from the Popes of both churches.
  • May 14, 1066

    England: Norman Invasion of England

    The Norman invasion lead up to the Battle of Hastings, in which the Normans won and this lead to their conquest. With their rule, they helped make the feudal system stronger as well as brought stone castles to England. The Bayeux Tapestry depicts all of the events that lead up to the Norman invasion of England.
  • May 14, 1071

    Middle Ages: Pope Urban's Speech at Council of Clermont

    A speech given by Pope Urban II at the time, stating reasons for Crusaders to go on a crusade. These reasons include that the Muslims are invading, to reclaim the holy land, the population is too large with scarce food, to go get land since landless lords need some, and to repent your sins.
  • Period: May 14, 1189 to May 15, 1192

    Middle Ages: Third Crusade

    Crusade to reconquer Holy Land from Saladin
  • May 14, 1200

    Germanic Tribes & Early Christian : Prose Edda

    An old text that tells of Norse mythology written by Snorri Sturlson that depicts the Norse god Thor, who reflects Germanic qualities of short- tempered, boastful, arrogant, brave, and strong. In the Prose Edda, Snorri Sturlson mentions how "man lost the name of God" as a free pass to talk about pagan religion without being persecuted at the time.
  • Period: May 14, 1202 to May 15, 1204

    Middle Ages: Fourth Crusade

    Crusade called by Pope Innocent III to conquer Jerusalem going through Egypt.
  • May 14, 1212

    Middle Ages: Children's Crusade

    Event where thousands of young people set out to recover Jerusalem from the Muslims.
  • Period: May 14, 1217 to May 15, 1221

    Middle Ages: Fifth Crusade

    A crusade led to reclaim holy land by first conquering the Ayyubid state in Egypt.
  • Period: May 14, 1228 to May 15, 1229

    Middle Ages: Sixth Crusade

    Launched by Frederick II, after the failure of the 5th crusade, which involved very little fighting.
  • Period: May 14, 1248 to May 15, 1254

    Middle Ages: Seventh Crusade

    Called by Pope Innocent IV, after the fall of Jerusalem in 1244.
  • May 14, 1270

    Middle Ages: Eighth Crusade

    A crusade launched by King Louis IX of France.
  • Period: May 14, 1271 to May 15, 1272

    Middle Ages: Ninth Crusade

    Started by future Edward I of England, considered the last major Crusade.
  • May 14, 1325

    Islam: Ibn Battuta left on pilgrimage to Mecca

    Went on pilgrimage to Mecca but ended up traveling all over Asia and recorded his travels in a book which he published which translates to "Travels".
  • May 14, 1453

    Middle Ages: Ottoman Empire Takes Constantinople

    Constantinople was conquered by the Ottoman Army, under Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II
  • Germanic Tribes & Early Christian: The Sacking of Rome by Alaric

  • Middle Ages: Christians take Jerusalem in First Crusade

  • Islam: Ali is murdered, creating Sunni/ Shia split

  • England: The House of Wessex (Alfred to Edward the Congessor)

  • Middle Ages: Population Growth (in Europe after ice age)