Period: 987 to 996
Reigns: Hugh CapetHey was King of the Franks. He was born in 936 and died in 996.Hugh married Adelaide, daughter of William III, duke of Aquitaine, in 970.
War: Battle of HastingsKing Harold II of England was defeated by the Norman forces of William the Conqueror. King Harold died by the end of the war. After the battle William was crowned the first Norman king of England.
War: Normans took Sicily from Muslims
Death of Sultan of TurksLed Byzantine Emperor, Alexius to appeal to the west for assistance against the Turks.
Important Documents (event): Council of Clermontan assembly for church reform called by Pope Urban II which, as a result of a request by envoys from the Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus to aid the Greeks against the Muslim Turks, became the occasion for initiating the First Crusade. https://www.britannica.com/event/Council-of-Clermont
Period: 1096 to 1099
War: First CrusadeWas a military campaign by western European forces to recapture Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslim control. The first and most important action to spark off the fuse which would eventually burn down to the explosion of the First Crusade was the rise of the Muslim Seljuks, a Turkish tribe of the steppe. The Seljuks won significant victories in Asia Minor against Byzantine armies. https://www.ancient.eu/First_Crusade/
Period: 1100 to 1135
Significant People: Henry IThe youngest of William the Conqueror's sons. He married Edith, sister of the king of Scotland, in order to secure his northern border.
Important documents: Concordat of wormsCompromise arranged between Pope Calixtus II (1119–24) and the Holy Roman emperor Henry V (reigned 1106–25) settling the investiture Controversy. Which was a struggle of control of the churches. Recognized that bishops are not only church leaders but temporal leaders as well. https://www.britannica.com/event/Concordat-of-Worms
First Lateran Councilthe ninth ecumenical council , was held during the reign of Pope Calixtus II; no acts or contemporary accounts survive. The council promulgated a number of canons (probably 22), many of which merely reiterated decrees of earlier councils. Much of the discussion was occupied with disciplinary or quasi-political decisions relating to the Investiture Controversy settled the previous year by the Concordat of Worms. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Lateran-Council-Roman-Catholicism
Period: 1147 to 1149
War:Second CrusadeSome consider to be a complete failure. The Second Crusade was a military campaign organised by the Pope and European nobles to recapture the city of Edessa in Mesopotamia which had fallen in 1144 CE to the Muslim Seljuk Turks. Also included significant campaigns in the Iberian peninsula and the Baltic against the Muslim Moors and pagan Europeans respectively.
Period: 1152 to 1190
Reigns : Frederick Barbarossaborn c. 1123—died June 10, 1190, duke of Swabia (as Frederick III, 1147–90) and German king and Holy Roman emperor (1152–90), who challenged papal authority and sought to establish German predominance in Western Europe. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Frederick-I-Holy-Roman-emperor
Period: 1154 to 1189
Significant People: Henry IIHis reign falls in a century flanked by the Norman Conquest and Magna Carta. He was husband to Eleanor of Aquitaine and father of two of more familiar monarchs.The final few years of Henry’s reign up until his death in 1189, were tormented by disputes with his sons. https://www.historic-uk.com/HistoryUK/HistoryofEngland/King-Henry-II-of-England/
Period: 1189 to 1192
War: Third CrusadeThe Third Crusade was launched to retake Jerusalem after its fall to the Muslim leader Saladin in 1187 CE. The Crusade was led by three European monarchs, hence its other name of ‘the Kings' Crusade’. The three leaders were: Frederick I Barbarossa, King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor (r. 1152-1190 CE), Philip II of France (r. 1180-1223 CE) and Richard I 'the Lionhearted' of England (r. 1189-1199 CE). https://www.ancient.eu/Third_Crusade/
Period: 1199 to 1216
Significant People: King JohnThe last child of the great Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine. He is responsible for Magna Carta.
Period: 1202 to 1204
War: Fourth CrusadeThe Fourth Crusade was called by Pope Innocent III to retake Jerusalem from its current Muslim overlords. However, in a bizarre combination of cock-ups, financial constraints, and Venetian trading ambitions, the target ended up being Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire and the greatest Christian city in the world. Sacked on 12 April 1204 CE, Constantinople was stripped of its riches and more.
Important Documents: Magna CartaOriginally was written in Latin. Addressed issues such as trial by Jury, prohibition against arbitrary arrests, and King could not levy taxes without consent of the kingdom.