Randr

The Renaissance and Reformation

By keeaeh
  • Jan 1, 1202

    The Fourth Crusade begins

    Crusaders organize themselves and agree to meet in Venice. When they are unable to pay for transport, they agree to conquer outlying territories on the behalf of the Byzantine emperor
  • Jan 1, 1204

    Sack of Constantinople

    Crusaders, irritated at treatment of the Byzantine government, capture and sack Constantinople, destroying priceless artifacts and stealing relics. They establish a Latin ruler.
  • Jan 1, 1208

    Crusade called by Pope Innocent III

    Pope Innocent III calls for a crusade against the Albigensians or Cathars, a heretical sect in Langueodoc (southern France). The heresy is particularly dangerous to orthodoxy because it refutes the need for worship in churches, the sacraments, and the material wealth of the church.
  • Jan 1, 1209

    Pope Innocent III, excommunicates King John of England

    Pope Innocent III, excommunicates King John of England
  • Jan 1, 1213

    Pope Innocent declares King John of England deposed

    Pope Innocent declares King John of England deposed. John mends his ways to make peace.
  • Jan 1, 1215

    Fourth Lateran Council

    Pope Innocent III calls the Fourth Lateran Council, one of the most important events in Church history, with 71 statements of doctrine ratified. For the first time in church history, yearly confession is required of all Christians, and transubstantiation became an official part of Catholic doctrine. Pope Innocent introduces a policy in which soldiers--if fighting non-Christian forces on crusade--could be given forgiveness of sins without penance. (This doctrine was a key element in rousing publi
  • May 5, 1215

    Magna Carta signed

    English barons force King John to sign a statement concerning the rights of the nobility, severely limiting the power of the monarchy. This "Great Charter" (Magna Carta) will form a legal model for later groups seeking to de-centralize state power.
  • Jun 26, 1215

    Frederick II crowned in France

    Frederick II crowned in France; he renews French struggle for control over the papacy.
  • Jan 1, 1216

    Pope Honorius III claims the Papal Seat

    Pope Honorius III claims the Papal See, ruling the church until 1227
  • Dec 31, 1216

    Henry III becomes King of England

    Henry III becomes King of England. As Henry is only nine years old, a regent-protector controls the kingdom until Henry achieves adulthood. Henry III's reign lasts 56 years, ending in 1272.
  • Jan 1, 1217

    The Fifth Crusade begins

    The Fifth Crusade begins, lasting until 1222. The crusaders set out to conquer Egypt in order that its grain supplies and troops will not be available to Muslim forces, who are becoming increasingly organized and centralized under a single ruler.
  • Jan 1, 1222

    The Fifth Crusade ends

    The Fifth Crusade ends in failure. Egypt remains in Muslim hands.
  • Jun 26, 1223

    Louis VIII takes the throne of France

    Louis VIII takes the throne of France, ruling until 1226
  • Jan 1, 1224

    France and England go to war

    France and England go to war over French territories held by England.
  • Jun 1, 1224

    War ends between France and England.

  • Jan 1, 1227

    Gregory IX assumes control of Papal Seat.

    Gregory IX assumes control of Papal Seat. He serves as pope until 1241
  • Jan 1, 1228

    Emperor Frederick II leads the Sixth Crusade

    Emperor Frederick II leads the Sixth Crusade, comparatively the most successful venture into Muslim lands since the first crusade in the late eleventh-century.
  • Jun 26, 1229

    Frederick II gains Jerusalem

    The crusaders of the Sixth Crusade surround Jerusalem. Frederick II gains Jerusalem by diplomacy
  • Jan 1, 1243

    Innocent IV claims the Papal Seat.

    Innocent IV claims the Papal Seat. He rules the church until 1254
  • Jun 26, 1243

    Egyptians recapture Jerusalem

    Egyptians recapture Jerusalem. The Christian occupational forces flee or are slaughtered.
  • Jun 26, 1245

    Innocent IV declare Emperor Frederick II legally deposed

    Innocent IV calls the Synod of Lyon. The Synod and Pope Innocent IV declare Emperor Frederick II legally deposed.
  • Jan 1, 1247

    Emperor Frederick II and and Pope Innocent IV's warfare

    Struggle between Emperor Frederick II and and Pope Innocent IV's allies. The bitter warfare lasts until 1250 when Conrad IV becomes Emperor.
  • Jun 26, 1248

    Louis IX of France leads the Seventh Crusade.

  • Jun 26, 1249

    Louis IX takes the city of Damieta in Egypt.

  • Jun 26, 1250

    Conrad IV, becomes Holy Roman Emperor.

    Frederick II dies. Conrad IV, becomes Holy Roman Emperor. He rules until 1254, and his death triggers a nineteen-year power struggle for the crown.
  • May 15, 1252

    The Inquisition began

    The Inquisition began
    Torture to elicit confessions was first authorized by Pope Innocent IV in his Bull Ad exstirpanda of May 15, 1252, which was confirmed by Pope Alexander IV on November 30, 1259, and by Pope Clement IV on November 3, 1265.
  • Jun 26, 1270

    End of the Seventh Crusade

    King Louis IX of France dies of plague while on Crusade. His death leads quickly to the end of the Seventh Crusade
  • Jun 26, 1300

    Late Middle Ages

    The beginning of the Late Middle Ages witnesses the invention of the magnetic compass, greatly aiding overseas expansion and enhancing trade between places such as Italy and the North. Boniface VIII calls the first papal "jubilee," thereby recognizing pilgrimages to Rome instead of Jerusalem, which is no longer accessible to the West
  • Jun 26, 1305

    The papacy is moved from Rome to Avignon

    The papacy is moved from Rome to Avignon, beginning the Church's "Babylonian Captivity." For most of the fourteenth century, the papacy is subordinate to French authority with the majority of cardinals and popes being French.
  • Jun 26, 1337

    Hundred Years' War begins

    The French attack the English and initiate the Hundred Years' War, a series of battles lasting until 1453 CE. The three greatest battles of the war are fought at Crecy (1346), Poitiers (1356) and Agincourt (1415). Due to the military superiority of the English, the French are defeated in most of the battles
  • May 1, 1348

    The Black Death in Europe

    The Black Death in Europe
    Coming out of the East, the Black Death reached the shores of Italy in the spring of 1348 unleashing a rampage of death across Europe unprecedented in recorded history. By the time the epidemic ended in 1352, anywhere between 25% and 50% of Europe's population had fallen victim to it.
  • Jan 1, 1350

    The Renaissance began

    The Renaissance began
    The Renaissance (from French: Renaissance "re-birth", Italian: Rinascimento, from rinascere "to be reborn") was a cultural movement that spanned the period roughly from the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1350 to

    The Renaissance

    The Renaissance (from French: Renaissance "re-birth", Italian: Rinascimento, from rinascere "to be reborn") was a cultural movement that spanned the period roughly from the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. *The days and months are not exact