Kingdoms of The Middle Ages

  • 1200 BCE

    EARLY CHRISTIANS: The Prose Edda

    Summary: A text of old Norse poems. In these poems, Snorri Sturlson (Author) says that man lost the name if God because he is saying that people forgot about the heavenly Christian god. the Character Thor reflects for warlike and violent Germanic customs were, because the germanic Tribal people adored Thor
  • 97

    EARLY CHRISTIANS: Tacitus' Germania

    Summary: Tacitus wrote a book talking about the way of life of the German people and compared it to the Romans. He wrote this to criticize Roman society, by making them feel bad for the germans.
  • 313

    EARLY CHRISTIANS: Edict of Milan

    Summary: a proclamation that permanently established religious toleration for Christianity within the Roman Empire. It was made by Emperor Constantine
  • 325

    EARLY CHRISTIANS: Nicean Creed

    Summary: Emperor Constantine called a council to Nicea to settle some disagreements on belief among the early Christians
  • 405

    BYZANTINE: Theodosius builds a great wall around Constantinople

    Summary: This established Constantinople as the new Eastern Roman Empire
  • 410

    BYZANTINE: The Sacking of Rome by Alaric

    Summary: The city (Rome) was attacked by the Visigoths led by King Alaric.
  • 466

    FRANCE: Reign of Clovis

    Summary: was the first king of the Franks to unite all of the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the form of leadership from a group of royal chieftains to rule by a single king and ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs. He is considered to have been the founder of the Merovingian dynasty
  • Period: 476 to Dec 25, 750

    FRANCE: The Merovingian Dynasty

    Summary: The Merovingian dynasty was founded by Childeric I , the son of Merovech, leader of the Salian Franks, but it was his famous son Clovis I who united all of Gaul under Merovingian rule.
  • 500

    FRANCE: The Salic Law

    Summary: was the ancient Salian Frankish civil law code compiled around 500 AD by the first Frankish King, Clovis. There was many laws protecting women, especially women who were with child.
  • 519

    ENGLAND: The House of Wessex

    Summary: Family that initially ruled a kingdom in southwest England known as Wessex, from the 6th century under Cerdic of Wessex until the unification of the Kingdoms of England. The descendants of Alfred the Great (871 - 899) down to Edward the Confessor in 1066
  • 527

    BYZANTINE: Justinian becomes Emperor

    Summary: During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the historical Roman Empire
  • 532

    BYZANTINE: Nika Revolt

    Summary: Fans of the chariot racing who usually hated each other, united against Justinian in a revolt. Justin wanted to leave but his wife, Theodora, would not allow him to flee. The destruction from these riots allowed the Haga Sophia to be built as a Christian church, and then converted into a Muslim mosque.
  • 550

    ENGLAND: Legions Depart

  • 550

    ENGLAND: Anglo-Saxon Invasion

    Summary: Traveled to England to protect the local towns, but hey didn't get paid, so they destroyed lands and took the towns instead of their pay.
  • 594

    FRANCE: Gregory of Tours, History of the Franks

    Summary: Gregory was a bishop who recorded the history of the Merovingian Franks. The fact that he was a historian who was also a bishop is important because he is biased towards the Church. Also, the king at the time, Clovis, was often violent and cruel, but in the histories, it is excused because Clovis is a Christian.
  • Period: Dec 24, 600 to Dec 25, 900


    Summary: a heroic narrative, concerning the deeds if a Scandanavian prince. The date of Beowulf is important to note because this was during the start of Christianity so the author of Beowulf had to fuse Christian ideals with the Norse mythology.
  • Dec 24, 622

    ISLAMIC: Muhammed leaves Mecca for Medina

    Summary: Muhammad migrated to Medina, where he had many followers who agreed to help and assist him.
  • Dec 24, 623

    ISLAMIC: Muhammed conquers Mecca

    Summary: When the Muslims took control of the city after being away from it for 8 years.
    To Rally his outnumbered forces, Muhammed called out the statement of Jihad, which is if you die fighting, you will go to paradise
  • Dec 24, 632

    ISLAMIC: Ali is murdered, creating Sunni/ Shia split

    Upon the death of Muhammed, Islam split into two branches, the Sunni and Shia
  • Period: Dec 24, 661 to Dec 25, 750

    ISLAMIC: Ummayad Empire

    Summary: he second of the four major Arab caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. This caliphate was centered on the Umayyad dynasty
  • Dec 24, 691

    ISLAMIC: Dome of the Rock built in Jerusalem

    Summary: is a shrine located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem. The Dome of the Rock is now one of the oldest works of Islamic architecture.
  • Dec 24, 732

    FRANCE: Battle of Tours and Charles Martel

    Summary: At the Battle of Tours near Poitiers, France, Frankish leader Charles Martel, a Christian, defeats a large army of Spanish Moors, halting the Muslim advance into Western Europe.
  • Dec 24, 735

    ENGLAND: The Venerable Bread

    Summary: English historian, father figure of English History. Also propaganda for Christianity. Roman Catholic conversions with hopes of connections to Rome.
  • Period: Dec 24, 750 to Dec 25, 1258

    ISLAMIC: Abbasid Empire

    Summary: The Abbasid Caliphate was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The Abbasid dynasty descended from Muhammad's youngest uncle, Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, from whom the dynasty takes its name
  • Dec 24, 751

    FRANCE: Pepin the Short

    Summary: The Father of Charlemagne
  • Dec 24, 800

    FRANCE: Charlemagne is crowned by The Pope

    Summary: King of the Franks became a Roman Emperor, with a vast swath of Europe under his rule.
  • Period: Dec 24, 800 to Dec 25, 924

    FRANCE: The Carolingian Dynasty

    Summary: a Frankish noble family. The Carolingian dynasty reached its peak with the crowning of Charlemagne as the first emperor in the west in over three centuries
  • Dec 24, 860

    ENGLAND: Alfred the Great

    Summary: (849-899) Alfred successfully defended his kingdom against the Viking attempt at conquest, and by the time of his death had become the dominant ruler in England
  • Dec 24, 1000

    BYZANTINE: Schism of East and West

    Summary: break between what are now the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic Churches
  • Dec 24, 1000

    ENGLAND: Norman Invasion of England

    Summary: 11th century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled as William the Conqueror.
  • Period: Dec 24, 1037 to Dec 25, 1194

    ISLAMIC: Seljuk Dynasty

    Summary: The Seljuqs established both the Seljuk Empire and Sultanate of Rum, which at their heights stretched from Anatolia through Iran and were targets of the First Crusade.
  • Dec 24, 1095

    MIDDLE AGES: Pope Urban's Speech at Council of Clermont

    Summary: Started crusades "If you go on the crusade and die you go to heaven"
  • Dec 24, 1097

    MIDDLE AGES: Christians take Jerusalem in the first crusade

    Summary: the first of a number of crusades that attempted to recapture the Holy Lands, called by Pope Urban II in 1095. The crusaders acted very harshly to those that they conquered , usually massacring them all
  • Period: Dec 24, 1189 to Dec 25, 1192

    MIDDLE AGES: Third Crusade

    Summary: The Kings' Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. The campaign was largely successful, capturing the important cities of Acre and Jaffa, and reversing most of Saladin's conquests, but it failed to capture Jerusalem
  • Period: Dec 24, 1202 to Dec 25, 1204

    MIDDLE AGES: Fourth Crusade

    Summary: Western European armed expedition called by Pope Innocent III, originally intended to conquer Muslim-controlled Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt. Instead, a sequence of events culminated in the Crusaders sacking the city of Constantinople, the capital of the Christian-controlled Byzantine Empire.
  • Dec 24, 1212

    MIDDLE AGES: Children's Crusade

    Summary: Disastrous Crusade by European Christians to expel Muslims from the Holy Land said to have taken place in 1212. many historians came to believe that they were not (or not primarily) children but multiple bands of "wandering poor" in Germany and France,
  • Period: Dec 24, 1213 to Dec 25, 1221

    MIDDLE AGES: Fifth Crusade

    Summary: was an attempt by Western Europeans to reacquire Jerusalem and the rest of the Holy Land by first conquering the powerful Ayyubid state in Egypt.
  • Period: Dec 24, 1228 to Dec 25, 1228

    MIDDLE AGES: Sixth Crusade

    Summary: attempt to regain Jerusalem. It began seven years after the failure of the Fifth Crusade and involved very little actual fighting
  • Dec 24, 1270

    MIDDLE AGES: Eighth Crusade

    Summary: crusade launched by Louis IX of France against the city of Tunis in 1270. The crusade is considered a failure after Louis died shortly after arriving on the shores of Tunisia, with his disease-ridden army dispersing back to Europe shortly afterwards.
  • Period: Dec 24, 1271 to Dec 21, 1272

    MIDDLE AGES: Ninth Crusade

    Summary: commonly considered to be the last major medieval Crusade to the Holy Land. The Ninth Crusade saw several impressive victories for Edward over Baibars. Ultimately the Crusade did not so much fail as withdraw, since Edward had pressing concerns at home and felt unable to resolve the internal conflicts within the remnant Outremer territories.
  • Dec 24, 1300

    ISLAMIC: Ibn Battuta left on a pilgrimage to Mecca

    Summary: His main reason to travel was to go on a Hajj, or a Pilgrimage to Mecca, as all good Muslims want to do. But his traveling went on for about 29 years and he covered about 75,000 miles visiting the equivalent of 44 modern countries
  • Dec 24, 1453

    MIDDLE AGES: Ottoman Empire takes Constantinople

    Summary: capture of the capital of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire by an invading army of the Ottoman Empire on 29 May 1453. The Ottomans were commanded by 21-year-old Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II,