Europe and the Middle East after the Fall of Rome: The Kingdoms of the Middle Ages

  • 100

    GERMANIC: Germania by Tacitus

    It was written by Tacitus to critique Roman society by comparing to Germanic tribes. it gives an in depth view of the Germanic society.
  • 313

    EARLY CHRISTIAN: Edict of Milan

    Constantine passed this edict of religious toleration for Christianity within the Roman Empire.
  • 325

    EARLY CHRISTIAN: Nicaean Creed

    The Nicaean Creed is a profession of faith. It contains what the Christians believe in about Jesus and God.
  • 400

    BYZANTINE: Great Wall around Constantinople

    Theodosius II builds a great wall around Constantinople, establishing it as the center of the new Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire)
  • 410

    EARLY CHRISTIANITY: The Sacking of Rome by Alaric

    Rome was sacked by Visigoths led by King Alaric. This was the first time in 800 years that Rome was sacked by a foreign enemy.
  • 410

    ENGLAND: Legions depart

    In 410 Roman legionsOffsite Link withdrew from the province of Britannia.
  • 410

    ENGLAND: Anglo Saxon Invasion

    They moved into Britain as Romans left because they were invited to fight off invaders.
  • Period: 476 to Dec 25, 750

    FRANCE: The Merovingian Dynasty

    traditionally reckoned as the “first race” of the kings of France
  • 500

    FRANCE: The Salic Law

    ancient written law code of the Franks compiled by King Clovis
    The main goal was to have the laws written down from having it just exist, to have it compiled and organized.
  • 527

    BYZANTINE: Justinian Becomes Emperor

    Emperor Justinian sought to revive the Roman Empire into its early glories and held restoration campaigns. He was able to reconquer the lost western half, but his work was lost by the bubonic plague.
  • 532

    BYZANTINE: Nika Revolt

    During Emperor Justinian I's rule in Constantinople, there were conflicts over chariot races and their teams, Blues and Greens. There were political aspects involved. Nika Revolt was the most violent riot in the history of Constantinople. The destruction that followed these revolts allowed for the reconstruction of Constantinople. The Hagia Sophia was built, which combined Christianity and Muslim art together.
  • 594

    FRANCE: Gregory of Tours, History of the Franks

    Gregory - historian and bishop
    In his records of the history of the Franks, he excused King Clovis's misdeeds just because Clovis was Christian.
  • Jun 1, 622

    ISLAM: Foundation of Islam

    The Hijra is the migration of Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina in 622 CE. In June 622, warned of a plot to assassinate him, Muhammad secretly slipped out of Mecca and moved his followers to Medina, 320 kilometers (200 miles) north of Mecca.
  • Dec 11, 629

    ISLAM: Muhammad conquers Mecca

    Mecca was capitulated for and conquered by Muslims. Muhammad was able to raise an army by saying "If you die, you go to paradise." This was declaring holy war, also called jihad.
  • Jan 1, 632

    ISLAM: Sunni / Shia Split

    Succession problems;
    - Shia believed that leadership should stay within the family of the prophet.
    - Sunnis believed that leadership should fall to the person who was deemed by the elite of the community to be best able to lead the community.
  • Period: Jan 1, 661 to Jan 1, 750

    ISLAM: Umayyad Empire

    second of the four major Islamic caliphates established after the death of Muhammad
  • Jan 1, 692

    ISLAM: Dome of the Rock build in Jerusalem

    It was constructed on the site of the Second Temple. A rock, known as the Foundation Stone, is at its heart, which bears great significance for Jews and Muslims.
  • Jan 1, 731

    ENGLAND: Venerable Bead's Writing

    Venerable Bede was an English monk who wrote many books on the history of the church in England,
  • Oct 10, 732

    FRANCE: The Battle of Tours and Charles Martel

    At the Battle of Tours near Poitiers, France, Frankish leader Charles Martel, a Christian, defeats a large army of Spanish Moors, halting the Muslim advance into Western Europe.
  • Period: Jan 1, 750 to Jan 1, 1258

    ISLAM: Abbasid Empire

    third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad
  • Period: Jan 1, 750 to Jan 1, 887

    FRANCE: The Carolingian Dynasty

    family of Frankish aristocrats and the dynasty that they established to rule western Europe
  • Jan 1, 768

    FRANCE: Pepin the Short

    Pepin the Short was the King of the Franks from 751 until his death. He was the first of the Carolingians to become king.
  • Dec 25, 800

    FRANCE: Charlemagne is crowned by Pope

    Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor of the Romans on December 25, 800, at St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.
  • Jan 1, 899

    ENGLAND: Alfred the Great

    He was born in 849 CE and died in 899 CE. He fought and defeated the Vikings and then made peace so that English and Vikings settled down to live together. He had books translated from Latin into English, so people could read them. He also told monks to begin writing the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.
  • Jan 1, 950

    MIDDLE AGES: Populaton Growth

    As the climate warmed after the ice age, there was a huge growth in population.
  • Jan 1, 1000

    GERMANIC: Beowulf

    This is an epic poem of a Norse legend about a hero named Beowulf. The author wrote this at c.1000 CE and was a Christian, so we can see the infusion of Germanic and Christian beliefs and cultures.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1037 to Jan 1, 1194

    ISLAM: Seljuk Dynasty

    The Seljuk Turks took over Jerusalem in 1071. Christians in Jerusalem were increasingly persecuted by the city’s Islamic rulers, especially when control of the holy city passed from the relatively tolerant Egyptians to the Seljuk Turks. While the dynasties before them were okay with Christians, this dynasty was not.
  • Jan 1, 1054

    BYZANTINE: Schism btw Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholic

    Charlemagne’s crowning by Pope Leo III made the Byzantine Emperor redundant, and relations between the East and the West deteriorated until a formal split occurred in 1054.
  • Jan 1, 1066

    ENGLAND: House of Wessex

    It refers to the family that initially ruled a kingdom in southwest England known as Wessex. They became rulers of a unified English nation after the descendants of Alfred the Great until Edward the Confessor.
  • Oct 14, 1066

    ENGLAND: Norman Invasion

    Edward the Confessor died without a heir, so there were fights for the throne between Harold Godwinson, Harald Hardrada, and William, Duke of Normandy. Harold was crowned King, which enraged the other two. Harald died in a battle with the vikings, then William's army killed Harold during the Battle of Hastings. Thus, William was crowned king. The tapestry telling this story is the Bayeux Tapestry.
  • Nov 27, 1095

    MIDDLE AGES: Pope Urban's Speech

    At the Council of Claremont, Pope Urban calls for the first crusade,
    FIve reasons to go on a crusade:
    1. Holy Land is being destroyed
    2. Must take revenge and reclaim the Holy Land
    3. There is a need for more land caused by overpopulation
    4. The Holy Land is filled with delights
    5. remission of sins
  • Jul 15, 1099

    MIDDLE AGES: Christians take Jerusalem in First Crusade

    With many failures beforehand, the crusaders used siege towers to infiltrate Jerusalem as a last attempt. When they went into the city, they killed everyone, regardless of their religion, gender or age.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1189 to Jan 1, 1192

    MIDDLE AGES: Third Crusade

    an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin
  • Period: Jan 1, 1202 to Jan 1, 1204

    MIDDLE AGES: Fourth Crusade

    Western European armed expedition called by Pope Innocent III, originally intended to conquer Muslim-controlled Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt.
  • Jan 1, 1212

    MIDDLE AGES: Children's Crusade

    disastrous Crusade by European Christians to expel Muslims from the Holy Land The narrative is compiled from factual and mythical notions of the period including visions by a French or German boy, an intention to peacefully convert Muslims in the Holy Land to Christianity, bands of children marching to Italy, and children being sold into slavery.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1213 to Jan 1, 1221

    MIDDLE AGES: Fifth Crusade

    an attempt by Western Europeans to reconquer Jerusalem and the rest of the Holy Land by first conquering the powerful Ayyubid Empire
  • Jan 1, 1220

    GERMANIC: Prose Edda

    It is a compilation of Norse lore that a poet of the time would need to know. By saying "man lost the name of God" it is referring to how people started worshiping other gods. Thor was very superior of himself, a show-off, aggressive, and was quick to temper. This reflects the Germanic tribal values of strength and power, and continuous wars.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1228 to Jan 1, 1229

    MIDDLE AGES: Sixth Crusade

    started 7 years after the previous failure of the fifth crusade
    involved very little actual fighting
  • Jan 1, 1270

    MIDDLE AGES: Eighth Crusade

    crusade launched by Louis IX of France against the city of Tunis
    The Eighth Crusade is sometimes counted as the Seventh
  • Period: Jan 1, 1271 to Jan 1, 1272

    MIDDLE AGES: Ninth Crusade

    last major medieval Crusade to the Holy Land
    Louis IX of France's failure to capture Tunis in the Eighth Crusade led Henry III of England's son Edward to sail to Acre in what is known as the Ninth Crusade.
  • Jan 1, 1326

    ISLAM: Ibn Battuta pilgrimage to Mecca

    Ibn Battuta was a reknown Islam traveler and scholar.
  • May 29, 1453

    MIDDLE AGES: Ottoman Empire Takes Constantinople

    the capture of the capital of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire by an invading army of the Ottoman Empire marked the end of the Roman Empire