History through Time

  • 100


    Tacitus's book, Germania, was made up of verifiable reports that centralized around the Republic. However, it was known that he showed a tremendous amount of sympathy towards the empire. Although it was heavily biased, it is the only form of knowledge that we have today. Through this book, Tacitus was trying to show how superior the Roman empire was.
  • 313


    The Edict of Milan officially made practice of Christianity legal throughout the Roman Empire. This proclamation was made by Roman Emperor Constantine.
  • 325


    The Nicaean Creed was used to eradicate previous controversies regarding the trinity of God. This document states that there is one God who is made of three substances which is shown through the Trinity.
  • 330

    BYZANTINE: Theodosius Builds The Walls of Constantinople

    The walls of Constantinople helped to defend and protect the center of the new Eastern Roman Empire: Constantinople.
  • 410

    ENGLAND: Legions Depart

    Romans had decided to end their rule in England. Due to this, literacy had also faded amongst the people of Rome.
  • 410

    GERMANIC TRIBES AND EARLY CHRISTIAN: The sacking of Rome by Alaric

    For the first time in 800 years, Rome had been successfully invaded. This type of destruction to an empire that believed in Paganism foreshadowed the ending of Paganism as Christianity grew in popularity.
  • 449

    ENGLAND: Anglo-Saxon Invasion

    Following the withdrawal of the Roman Empire, Anglo-Saxons invaded Britain and took over large parts of the island. It is believed that Anglo-Saxons travelled to England due to agricultural reasons.
  • Period: 476 to Jan 1, 750

    FRANCE: The Merovingian Dynasty

    The Merovingian Dynasty was thought of to be the first royal french house. The reign of Clovis is considered the first great ruling of this empire. After Clovis, Pepin the Short's rule was most notable and Charles Mantel followed him. During the reign of Charles Mantel, The Battle of Tours had occurred in which the Franks defeated the Muslims.
  • 511

    FRANCE: The Salic Law

    The Salic Law was a codification of rules that was held in high priority by the Frankish people. The main goal for these laws were to stop killings, provide protection, and inheritance and marriage rules.
  • 532

    BYZANTINE: Nika Revolt

    In 532, a riot had broken out in which Justinian had refused to pardon two killers who had escaped a death sentence. As the riots escalated, Justinian called in German mercenaries who unfortunately killed priests and monks who attempted to make peace. Due to this most of the city when up in flames. However, through this, the Hagia Sophia was made (Was in a scene of Taken 2 with Liam Neeson). This structure was used to convert more people to Christianity.
  • 591

    FRANCE: Gregory of Tours, History of the Franks

    The Gregory of Tours was used as a source for history of the Frankish People. Though this document was heavily biased towards Clovis, this was the main source of knowledge. Other than a writer, Gregory was a deacon in a church and eventually became a bishop.
  • Sep 24, 622

    ISLAM: Muhammad leaves Mecca for Medina/Foundation of Islam

    After fleeing for his life, Muhammad leaves Mecca to settle in the town of Medina. There, Muhammad builds the first mosque and works to create the foundation of Islam by gathering new followers.
  • Jan 1, 629

    ISLAM: Muhammad Conquers Mecca

    After gathering followers and building an army in Medina, Muhammad goes to Mecca. Upon returning to the city that had fought and opposed him, the prophet was left untouched and Islam was able to gain control over Mecca.
  • Jan 1, 632

    ISLAM: Ali is murdered, creating Sunni/Shia split

    After Muhammad dies, the controversy of who takes over for Muhammad begins. Due to this, the Sunni and Shia, who were the two parts of Islam, split.
  • Period: Jan 1, 661 to Jan 1, 750

    ISLAM: Umayyad Empire

    The Umayyad Empire was the first great Muslim dynasty that was centered in Mecca.
  • Jan 1, 691

    ISLAM: Dome of the Rock Built in Jerusalem

    The Dome of the Rock is a Muslim shrine that was built on Temple Mount in Jerusalem. This architectural feat is one of the oldest works in Islam history.
  • Jan 1, 731

    ENGLAND: The Venerable Bead's Writing

    The Venerable Bead is a historical account of the Christian Churches in England.
  • Period: Jan 1, 750 to Jan 1, 1258

    ISLAM: The Abbasid Empire

    After overthrowing the Umayyad Empire, the Abbasid Empire became the second great dynasty that lasted over 700 years.
  • Period: Jan 1, 750 to Jan 1, 887

    FRANCE: The Carolingian Dynasty

    The Carolingian Dynasty was established to rule Western Europe. This empire was ruled by a family of Frankish aristocrats and the most famous was a man named Charlemagne.
  • Dec 25, 800

    FRANCE: Charlemagne is Crowned by Pope

    It is believed that during a religious ceremony, the Pope had surprised Charlemagne with the crown. However, it is probable that Charlemagne had knowledge of this as the Pope was in need of help during this time period.
  • Period: Jan 1, 849 to Jan 1, 899

    ENGLAND: Alfred the Great

    Throughout Alfred the Great's tenure as king, he helped to increase the literacy rate and prevented England from falling to the Danes. However, for Alfred to even become King was unlikely as he had four older brothers. Due to deaths and ominous mishaps, Alfred became King and thrived at this role.
  • Period: Jan 1, 871 to Jan 1, 1066

    ENGLAND: House of Wessex

    The House of Wessex is known as the family that originally ruled Wessex. This house refers to the descendants of Alfred the Great.
  • Jan 1, 1000


    Beowulf is an epic poem based on the hero of the Geats, Beowulf, who helps save Hrothgar's empire by helping to defeat Grendel and other monsters. However, in doing so, he suffers a tragic death. The date of this poem is important as it signifies the culture/attitude of society during this time period.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1000 to Jan 1, 1300

    MIDDLE AGES: Population Growth

    During the middle ages, there was a huge growth in population which helped to aid the political and social progress.
  • Jan 1, 1054

    BYZANTINE: Schism between Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholic

    The split of the Byzantine empire and Roman catholic occurred when Charlemagne was crowned King of the Franks. In 1054, the churches broke apart to become the East and West. In the east, Greek Orthodox prevailed while the West had become Catholic. The patriarch of Constantinople and the Pope had excommunicated each other.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1060 to Jan 1, 1307

    ISLAM: Seljuk Dynasty

    In 1071, the control of the Holy city had shifted from the Egyptians to the Seljuk Dynasty.
  • Jan 1, 1066

    ENGLAND: Norman Invasions of England

    After William, the Duke of Normandy, had invaded England, he had given Norman control over England after becoming King of England. The tapestry describing this event is that William had become the King of England, but was already the Duke of Normandy in France.
  • Jan 1, 1095

    MIDDLE AGES: Pope Urban's Speech at Council of Clermont

    During this speech, Pope Urban gives many indicative reasons and beneficial aspects of going on a crusade. The five reasons that he gives in his speech are: Muslims destroy Holy Land, reclaim the holy land, overpopulation, take land from Muslims, and the remission of sins.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1096 to Jan 1, 1099

    MIDDLE AGES: Christians Take Jerusalem in First Crusade

    In the first crusade, the Christians capture Jerusalem amidst great slaughter. This was very "Un-Christian" since they killed everyone. However, in the end, they accomplished their goal of conquering Jerusalem.
  • Period: Jan 24, 1189 to Jan 1, 1192

    MIDDLE AGES: Third Crusade

    As shown through our current book, "Cruel as the Grave", King Richard uses the kingdom's funds in order to raise money for the Third Crusade. The Muslim forces had won this crusade.
  • Jan 1, 1200


    The Prose Edda is an ancient Norse Mythological text that contained excerpts based on Thor. In the translated version, Snorri Sturlson states that man lost the name of God as they had started to neglect the worship of God. Also, within this these excerpts, Thor is reflected as a man who demonstrates many Germanic tribal values such as being strong, brutal, and ruthless.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1202 to Jan 1, 1204

    MIDDLE AGES: Fourth Crusade

    In this crusade, many people did not have enough money for the payment of ships. However, the Venetians allowed them to pay later, but in doing so, they had to fight in an additional war. This crusade was a total disaster.
  • Jan 1, 1212

    MIDDLE AGES: Children's Crusade

    The Children's Crusade is known for being disastrous as none of the young crusaders ever made it to the holy land.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1217 to Jan 1, 1221

    MIDDLE AGES: Fifth Crusade

    After the disaster of the fourth crusade, the fifth crusade was an attempt to take back the Holy Land.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1228 to Jan 1, 1229

    MIDDLE AGES: Sixth Crusade

    In the sixth crusade, King Frederick was able to obtain Jerusalem, Nazareth, and many other small towns for a decade long truce.
  • Jan 1, 1270

    MIDDLE AGES: Eighth Crusade

    During this crusade, the Christians had lost power in Syria.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1271 to Jan 1, 1272

    MIDDLE AGES: Ninth Crusade

    The last significant crusade to the holy land. Prince Edward tried to recover Jerusalem.
  • Jan 1, 1325

    ISLAM: Ibn Battuta Left on Pilgrimage to Mecca

    After Marco Polo had died, Ibn Battuta had claimed the title of the most adventurous traveler. He had embarked on a journey to Africa and Asia that lasted a total of thirty years. During this time, he had traveled over 75,000 miles.
  • May 29, 1453

    MIDDLE AGES: Ottoman Empire Takes Constantinople

    Under Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II, the Ottoman Empire conquered Constantinople. After this historical conquest, the Ottoman Empire became very powerful.