Manuela Suárez Grandal_G&H_4G

Timeline created by manuelasuarezgrandal
In History
  • Period: 1492 to

    Modern History

    Modern history is the history of the world beginning after the Middle Ages. It refers to the history of the world since the advent of the Age of Reason and the Age of Enlightenment in the 17th and 18th centuries and the beginning of the Industrial Revolution
  • John Kay’s flying shuttle

    John Kay’s flying shuttle
    The mechanisation process started with John Kay's flying shuttle, wich increased the speed of production and made it possible to weave wider fabrics.
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    First Industrial Revolution

    The Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain in the mid- 18th century. It had a series of interconnected changes driven by innovation, which led to a great change: increase in food production and population, new machinery and energy sources for industry, bigger markets and new systems for financing companies.
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    Enclousure Acts

    A series of laws that led to a concentration of land ownership.
  • James Watt’s steam engine

    James Watt’s steam engine
    Its role in the mechanization of the textile industry led to a rise in productivity and total production, which made the possibility of lower costs and to reduce the sale price of the product.
  • Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations

    Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations
    Is the most influential book on market economics ever written.
  • Invention of the power loom

    Invention of the power loom
    Edmund Cartwright's created the power loom, which dramatically increased fabric production and lowered its cost.
  • Estates General

    Estates General
    Representatives of the clergy, nobility and the Third State met in Versailles in May 1789, it was convocated by king Louis XVIto find a solution to the financial crisis of the country, but the representatives of the third state left the meeting when the privileged classes refused to allow them greater representation and insisted on one vote per state rather than per one representative.
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    The representatives of the Third State met in a pavilion in Versailles (Jeu de Pomme) and proclaimed themselves the National Assembly (representatives of the nation)
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    Abolished the feudalism and approved the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which recognized the rights, individual freedoms, and equality of all citizens in law and taxation.
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    Contemporary History

    Is a subset of modern history that describes the historical period from 1789 to the present.
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    Constitutional monarchy

    In the first phase of the revolution, the moderate bourgeoisie tried to reach an agreement with the king and the privileged classes to make France a constitutional and parliamentary monarchy.
    How did they do it?
    - Abolishment of feudalism by approving the Declaration of the
    Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    - Approval of the first French constitution
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    French Revolution

    The French Revolution began in May 1789 when the Ancien Régime was abolished in favour of a constitutional monarchy. The causes were the impact of Enlightenment ideals and the American Revolution, the social crisis, the economic crisis and the financial crisis.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    The people of Paris supported the Assembly's proposals and on July 14 they stormed the Bastille which represented royal authority. The prison contained only seven prisoners at the time of its storming but was seen by the revolutionaries as a symbol of the monarchy's abuse of power. The revolution spread to the countryside where noble's homes were burnt (the Great Fear)
  • Women’s March on Versailles

    Women’s March on Versailles
    From Paris’ markets, thousands of angry women (due to high prices of food), marched to
    Versailles. They forced the king to abandon his palace and go to Tuileries Palace in Paris.
  • First French constitution

    First French constitution
    It was based on the separation of powers, national sovereignty, and legal equality, though the king reserved the right of veto. Only people with a certain level of wealth could vote (census suffrage). Thanks to this, they created the Legislative Assembly, which drafted new laws to implement liberalism such as:
    -The abolition of guilds
    - National Guard
    - Legal equality of social groups (nobility forced to pay taxes and the
    properties of the clergy were confiscated and sold.
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    Social Republic

    It was the second phase of the revolution. It started because of:
    -The king betrayal
    -Military invasion of Prussia and Austria (absolute monarchies)
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    Girondin Convention

    They were the more moderated bourgeoisie. In this period, the National Convention (new assembly elected by universal male suffrage) was created, and Louis XVI was executed.
  • War of the First Coalition

    War of the First Coalition
    Set of wars that several European powers fought between 1792 and 1797 against the revolution
  • Storm of Tuileries Palace

    Storm of Tuileries Palace
    The betrayal by the king and the military invasion led to the revolt of the sans-culottes (common people). They stormed Tuileires Palace and imprisoned the royal family, this led to the beginning of the republic.
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    Jacobin Convention

    In June 1793, the Jacobins, the most radical sector of the bourgeoisie, endorsed the demands of the popular sectors and seized power. The revolution entered its most extreme phase.
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    Reign of Terror

    To reject the Austrian invasion, a mass levy was organized that forced all citizens to join the army. To stop conspirations, the Reign of Terror was imposed. Freedoms were suspended and people opposed to the government were either imprisoned or revolutionary courts ordered their execution by guillotine
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    The Girondins accused Louis XVI of treason and he was executed.
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    Conservative Republic

    The moderate bourgeoisie took back control of the Revolution and it entered its third and final phase. Jacobin laws were cancelled and exiles from the Reign of Terror were encouraged to return. A new constitution granted executive power to a collegial government, known as the Directory, and restored census suffrage.
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    The Consulate

    Napoleon's coup d'état was supported by a large part of the bourgeoisie. His aim was to implement the more moderate ideologies that had inspired the French Revolution.
    In 1799, Napoleon was named consul, and the Consulate's rule began.
  • Coup of 18th Brumaire

    Coup of 18th Brumaire
    Napoleon Bonaparte organized this coup supported by a large part of the bourgeoisie and started an authoritarian rule
  • Constitution of 1800

    Constitution of 1800
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    Napoleon crowned emperor
    He was crowned by the Pope in 1804
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    The Napoleonic Empire

    Napoleon began his conquest of Europe in 1803 and was crowned emperor by the Pope in 1804
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king

    Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king
    In 1808, the French invaded Spain and Joseph Bonaparte, one of the emperor’s brothers, was proclamed king.
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    Luddite movement

    Started in England in the early 19th century and consisted in the violent destruction of machinery, because they thought that it was the responsible for low wages and unemployment.
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    The Restoration of absolutism

    Between 1814 and 1815, the powers that defeated Napoleon met at the Congress of Vienna
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    The imperial armies were defeated in Waterloo by Great Britain and Prussia, so, Napoleon abdicated and was sent to exile to Saint Helena
  • Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty

    Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty
    The Congress of Vienna established the ideological principles of the Restoration, such as the legitimacy of the absolute monarch and the denial of national sovereignty. It also called for a balance of power between the victors through periodic meetings and the right of intervention.
    In 1815, the Holy Alliance Treaty was signed. This stipulated that the absolute monarchs would unite against any threat of liberal revolution.
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    Greek War of Independence

    They took part of the Ottoman Empire for centuries but Greeks had to pay high taxes, they were excluded from state administration jobs and they were dominated by people with different religions and cultures so they declared a war of independence, so in 1830 they recognized the independence.
  • Abolishment of the Combination Acts

    Abolishment of the Combination Acts
    Repeal of the laws prohibiting workers associations in England.
  • Stephenson’s Steam locomotive

    Stephenson’s Steam locomotive
    Used a steam engine to generate continuous motion of the wheels. This made the new transport system carry more people and goods in less time and lower cost.
  • Revolutions of 1830

    Revolutions of 1830
    The Congress of Vienna did not respect the liberal principles or the nationalist aspirations of some European peoples so two main opposition forces appeared: liberalism and nationalism.
    The movement began in France and insurrections spread all over Europe, with significant popular support.
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    The Age of the revolutions

    After 1815, liberalism and nationalism became the two main opposition forces, prompting the revolutions of 1830 and 1848 that ended the restoration of absolutism.
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    The Belgian Revolution

    Belgium was made part of the Kingdom of Holland by the Congress of Vienna, which then became the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The spread of liberal ideas helped the Belgian Revolution and Belgium became a liberal monarchy ruled by Leopold I
  • Zollverein

    Customs Union of the States of Germany.
  • Grand National Consolidated Trades Union

    Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
    It brought together different types of workers. Its first tasks were to defend the right of association, to improve wages, to regulate child labour and to reduce the working day.
  • Revolutions of 1848

    Revolutions of 1848
    People lived under the rule of an empire (Austrian, Russian and Ottoman) or were fragmented into various states (Germany and Italy). The rise of liberalism and the expansion of nationalism = the pursuit of independent nations free from the control of absolutist empires.
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    French Second Republic

    In France, a popular uprising proclaimed the Second Republic, which adopted a number of democratic measures, such as universal male suffrage, press freedom, the abolition of the death penalty and recognition of certain rights for workers.
  • Invention of the Bessemer converter

    Invention of the Bessemer converter
    The Bessemer converter made it possible to manufacture steel, which was a more flexible material, ideal for constructing machinery, buildings, tools and public works.
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    Italian Unification process

    In 1859 The Kingdom of Piedmont, ruled by the liberal monarchy of Savoy with Cavour as Prime Minister, started the unification (Declared the war on Austria and annexed Lombardy and a Popular uprising lead by Garibaldi overthrew the absolute monarchies in central and southern Italy). In 1861, Victor Manuel II of Savoy proclaimed king of Italy, and in 1866 Austria left Venetia. Finally, in 1870 The Papal states were annexed and Rome became the capital
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    German Unification process

    It was divided into 36 states, associated with the German Confederation, where Prussia and Austria were competing for power.
    In 1834, Prussia created a customs union (Zollverein), in 1848 the 1st freely elected parliament offered the crown of Germany to the king of Prussia, who refused it; in 1861, New political figures in Prussia: King Wilhelm I and Otto von Bismarck as chancellor. At the end, in 1871 the proclamation of the Second German Empire (or Reich) with Wilhelm I as Kaiser.
  • First International

    First International
    It was created in 1864. Marxists, anarchists and trade unions joined, but the ideological differences between them made it difficult and they split in 1876
  • Karl Marx publishes "Das Kapital"

    Karl Marx publishes "Das Kapital"
    One of the most important books about capitalism and political economy.
  • Second International

    Second International
    It was founded by the Marxists to coordinate the various social parties. It established some identity symbols of the labour movement such as the 1 May holiday and the anthem "The Internationale"