Life After Muhammad: His Successors

Timeline created by r.murphyy
In History
  • Jun 8, 632

    Muhammad's Death

    Muhammad's Death
    This year was the death of Muhammad. Muhammad was not able to chose his successor and it couldn't be passed down to a son, beacuse none of his sons made it to adult-hood. Even though there were disagreements to who should succeed Muhammad, Abu Bakr became the first caliph.
  • Apr 5, 634

    Campaign in Syria and Palestine

    Campaign in Syria and Palestine
    From 634-638 Muslims campaign in Syria and Palestine against the Byzantines. By capturing central Syria, the communication between Syria and Palestine was non-existent. In 635 Umar gained the strength of the byzantine army in Palestine and Muslims were able to occupy Damascus. By this time Palestine, Jordan, and Southern Syria were in Muslims hands. 637 Muslims occupied Jerusalem. The battle lasted four months, until they decided to surrender, but only to Caliph Umar in person.
  • Aug 23, 634

    Caliph Umar

    Caliph Umar
    The reign of the second Caliph, Umar. Umar was Quraish and set out to kill Muhammad until he converted to Islam in 616. Umar became a companion with Muhammad and migrated with him to Medina.
  • Jan 1, 644

    Caliph Uthman

    Caliph Uthman
    644-656 Caliphate Uthman reigned. His plan was to recapture the Levant, which was lost under Umar's reign. Uthman gave permission to build a navy in Syria. Muslims used this fleet to capture Cyprus in 649 and Crete and the Rhodes. In 654-655 Uthman ordered the preparation to capture Constantinople but due to his assassination, the expedition was delayed.
  • Jan 1, 656

    Caliphate Ali

    Caliphate Ali
    Ali ibn Abu Talib became caliphate. he was Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law. Ali was the first male who accepted Islam. During his reign the Muslim community split into Sunni and Shi'i. Sunnis considered Ali the fourth and final Rashidun and Shais felt Ali was the first Imam after Muhammad, and considered him and his offspring the lawful successors to Muhammad.
  • Jan 1, 661

    Caliphate of Umayyad Dynasty

    Caliphate of Umayyad Dynasty
    661-750 CE was the time of the Caliphate Umayyad Dynasty. their establishment was founded by long-term govenor of Syria. Syria remained the Umayyad's main power base and Damascus became the capital. Muslim conquest extended trhough Iran and across Noth Africa.
  • Jan 1, 674

    First Seige of Constantinople

    First Seige of Constantinople
    674-679 The First siege of Constantinople occured. It was a huge conflict and the first conclusion of the Umayyad Caliphate's colonizing scheme towards the Byzantine Empire. Caliph Mu'awiya stirred up aggresive warfare against Byzantine in reulsts to capture their capital, Constantinople. Byzantine were able to get victory over Arab army. A peace treaty was signed afterwards.
  • Jan 1, 717

    The Second Siege of Constantinople

    The Second Siege of Constantinople
    717-718 CE The second siege of Constantinople was a combination of land and sea. A battle of the Arabs and Umayyad Caliphate against the capital city of the Byzantine Empire. Arab army went through famine and diseases during the winter. The Arabs were defeated again.
  • Jan 1, 747

    Abbasid Revolt

    Abbasid Revolt
    Abbasid revolution begins. It was the process of overthrowing the Umayyad Caliphate. The revolution marked the end of the the Arab empire and the beginning of a more general, multiethnic state in the Middle East. This revolt was known for the focus of the Muslim world to the east. By 749 the first Abbasid caliph was proclaimed.
  • Jan 1, 751

    Battle of Talas

    Battle of Talas
    Battle of Talas ended the Chinese Tang Dynasty. The Abbasid Caliphate troops met with the Tang troops and they were defeated. The significance was in regards to change in the political fortunes of the rival side and the region. This forced the Chinese into Central Asia.
  • Jan 1, 762

    Baghdad

    Baghdad
    Under the Caliph Al-Mansur, Abbasids established Madinat al-Salam ("City of Peace") as their new capital in Mesopotamia, known as Baghdad.
  • Jan 1, 813

    House of Wisdom

    House of Wisdom
    813-833 CE The reign duration of Abbasid Caliphate Ma'mun. In 830 Ma'mun established "House of Wisdom" in Baghdad, he was responsible for the translation of manuscripts from Greek, Syriac, Persian and Sanskrit into Arabic. It was originallly founded by his father Caliph Harun al-Rashid. Scholars connected with the House of Wisdom also made influences to divers fields.