Latin America Independence Movements

  • Failed attempt for independence in Peru

    Failed attempt for independence in Peru
    Tupac Amaru II tried to free Peru from Spain, but failed. He claimed to be a descendent from the last Inca king. He fought in battles to try to gain freedom for Peru. This went on during the whole year of 1780. This was the first push for independence and started the resistance in Peru.
  • Peninsular War

    Peninsular War
    The war was lost by Spain and freed many places in America from their central rule. Upper Peru was soon annexed and remained very strongly royalist. The war went on from 1807 until 1814.
  • Napoleon's forces enter Lisbon

    Napoleon's forces enter Lisbon
    As French forces invaded the walls of Lisbon, the monarchy, which included Dom Joao, along with 10,000 followers, took a voyage across the Atlantic Ocean to Brazil. Brazil became the head of the Portuguese Empire, and Dom Joao ruled there for 15 years.
  • Paraguay Indepedence

    Paraguay Indepedence
    Paraguay gained its Indepenence by overthrowing the Spanish authorities, freeing itself from Spanish rule. Paraguay first had to fight Argentina and reject Beunos Aires, in the struggle to gain Independence. In 1811, under the leadership of Paraguay military captains Pedro Juan Cabellero and Fulgencio Yegros the Paraguay military overthrew the colonial power and declared the independence of Paraguay in the year of 1811.
  • Uruguay revolt against Spain

    Uruguay revolt against Spain
    In 1811, José Gervasio Artigas, the father of Uruguay's independence movement, organized a revolt against Spain. On May 18th, Artigas defeated Spain in the Battle of Las Piedras. Although the revolt was successful, Portuguese Brazil attacked Uruguay, hoping to prevent Uruguay's revolutionary ideas from spreading to their colonies. Uruguay did not gain their independence for another 14 years.
  • Peru Independence

    Peru Independence
    Lead by Jose de San Martin of Argentina and Simon Bolivar of Venezuela, Peru gained its independence from Spain in 1821. Many battles were won by Peru in their bid for independence. Lots of citizens died. After the final battle, the paper for independence was signed on the battlefield.
  • Brazilian Independence

    Brazilian Independence
    After Frech forces invaded Portugal, Dom Joao and the monarch fled to their colony of Brazil, and ruled the Portuguese Empire for 13 years from Brazil. After being forced to return to Brazil in 1821, Dom Joao left his son Pedro in control of Brazil. After Pedro was able to peacefully conquer Portuguese forces, he declared Brazil's independence on September 7, 1822, and ruled as Dom Pedro I.
  • Uruguay Independence

    Uruguay Independence
    Uruguay, lead by José Gervasio Artigas, gained independence after defeating Spain and Portuguese Brazil. Once Spain was defeated, Portuguese Brazil attempted to stop Uruguay from gaining independence and spreading ideas of revolution across the Latin American colonies. Uruguay, with the help of Argentina, defeated Brazil. Uruguay became an independent nation in 1825 with the Treaty of Montevideo, supported by Britain.
  • Uruguay Civil War

    Uruguay Civil War
    In 1839, a civil war broke out between two political parties in Uruguay. Fructuoso Rivera, the first president of Uruguay, founded the Colorados party (future liberals). Manuel Oribe, Rivera's successor, founded the Blancos party (future conservatives). When the war ended, Uruguay was devastated by years of destruction and violence.
  • Paraguayan War

    Paraguayan War
    The War of the Triple Alliance (1864/1865-18700, also known as the Paraguayan War, was the bloodiest conflict in Latin American History. The war was fought between Paraguay and the allied countries of Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay. It was a disaster for Paraguay, having lost two-thirds of its population of men. Paraguay also lost a lot of land (55,000 square miles) and its pride.
  • Brazil becomes a Republic

    Brazil becomes a Republic
    A military coup, said to be a bloodeless one, overthrew the monarchy and instituted a Republic as the government of Brazil.
  • Uruguay Reforms

    Uruguay Reforms
    The Uruguay president and Colorados party leader Jose Batlle y Ordonez, established reforms to transform Uruguay into a democratic welfare state. His reforms also eliminated the death penalty, developed public works, and improved the labor system. After centuries of warfare and European rule, Uruguay gained political stability as an independent nation.