latin america anth 134

By deeport
  • Oct 29, 1111


  • Oct 29, 1491

    La Reconquista

    Spain was reconquering from the Muslims (had ruled for over 800 yrs) can see now the arab buildings and impact in Spain
    Development of spanish words from arabic language
  • Oct 29, 1491

    The sword and the cross

    Catholic church also wanted to spread as rid of Muslim rule and influence
  • Oct 29, 1521

    aztec empire and hernan cortez

    How conquered?
    -lack of political consolidation of Aztec and Inca empire=unhappy with rulers so aided in defeating them bc thought would benefit them but it didnt
    -superior military tactics and technologies=weapons(guns, bullets), horses, had just gotten out f waging war with Arabs so had strategies
    -contagious disease=no immunity at all led to epidemic bc of exposure to cattle's bacteria
  • Oct 29, 1539

    inca empire and pizarro bothers

  • Oct 29, 1540

    Portuguese colonization

    didn't want until found sugar and started bringing 1/3 of African slaves (middle passage)
  • Oct 29, 1540

    "Columbian Exchange"

    old world to new world
    men, animals (cattle, horses, chickens, pigs) and plants (bananas, wheat, rice, sugar cane), disease, language, religion, cultural values
     Staple crops (corn, potatoes, tomatoes) and luxury goods (chocolate, tobacco, sugar, coffee)
     Wealth in raw materials (silver, gold, dyes)
     Ideas of “the other
     People not like us are usually a negative opposite
     Prevalent issue of racism
  • Oct 29, 1550

    focused on Brazilian Coast

  • Oct 29, 1550

    Powers in Spanish Colonies

    • Viceroyalties
     Deputy Kings: central authorities with very little regulation on them on the colonies since they were so far away
    • The catholic church

     Very closely allied with Spanish so viceroyalties would not go against and try to claim as own land
    • Regional leaders
    • From ecomiendas to haciendas
     The hacienda, land ownership, and Iberian values
     Ecomienda: labor rentshad to convert all the people to Christianity on your land, they would work your land and give the products to yo
  • Oct 29, 1550

    Power in Spanish Colonies 2

    • Social and economic equalities
    o Miscegenation and the Caste System
    • Peninsulares (Spanish-born)
    • Criollos (Creoles, descendants of the Spaniards born in the Americas)
    • Mestizos (Spanish and Indian)
    • “Indians” (diverse ethnic groups)Native Americans and several other ethnic groups
     Ethnic identity in Mesoamerica and the Andes
     Really putting large group into one category
    • African slaves and ethnic identity
    • “Passing” and flexibility in social system
  • Oct 29, 1550

    Family Life

    • Gender roles
     Separate spheres
    • Men and Sexual freedom
     Had families with indigenous women and they were out working
     The children would apply to have Spanish father help them rise in social ladder
    • Women, work and economic status
    • Godparents
     Would be helpful since he was supposed to help these peasants convert to Christianity, despite they exploited them for work

    • The extended family and nepotism
  • Oct 29, 1550

    Atlantic Slave Trade

    o The Atlantic Slave Trade
    • Portuguese vs. Spanish colonization
    • Other slave destinations
    • Sugar plantations and mills : fazendas, casa grandes and senzalas
    • Sugar: the booms and busts of an export
    o Resistance and Rebellion
    • Everyday resistance (“weapons of the weak”)
    • Sabotaging work, poisoning, abortion, infanticide, and suicide, faking illness, religion and magic, flight (maroon communities)
    • Maroon communities (ex. Quilombo Palmaresbrazil was to big it even had ruler and army)
  • End of Empire

    • External Causes of Independence:
     Enlightenment (late 1700s) people should be equal
     American and French Revolutions (1776 and 1789)
     Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815)Americas provided the $ for Spanish to fight against Napoleon
     Simon Bolivar”The Liberator”
     Miguel Hidalgo father of Mexican independence
    • Internal Causes of Independence:
     Unrest over taxation
     Led by Creole and Mestizo elite
     Growing pop with great inequality
  • Period: to

    Industrial Revolution

    o Technological innovations
    • Electricity
    • Refrigeration
    • Gramophone
    • Textile manufacturing
    o Social Consequences
    • Migration from rural to urban areas
    • Urban slumsshantytowns (middle class formed)
    • Rise of the middle class
    • Inequality and political unrest
    • Marx started to write as a rxn of factory conditions…rivalry with de bourgeois
  • Period: to

    Industrial Revolution Impact

    o Mass Production
    • Factories with poor working conditions
    • Pollution
    • Child labor
    • Everything that was once artisan now produced in mass production and things like lace became affordable to all and no longer was for wealthy
    • Beginnings of women working for wages…women and men and children
    o Liberal economics
    • “Laissez-faire” markets
    • Little gvt regulation
    • Privatization
    • Specializations ( exports)
    • Free markets—allowed exporting to other countries without taxation or tariffs
  • Haiti:First Independent nation of Latin America

    • Haitian revolution : 1791-1804
     Able to unite because all spoke same language and tired of being exploited
    • Haiti and sugar: the “jewel” of the French crown
     Big money source because made large amounts of sugar

    • Post-independence” trade embargoes, ruling mulatto elite, thriving afro-american culture
    • Effects of revolution in the rest of latin america
  • Beginnings of Latin America Identity

    New nations:
    • Independence: Argentina (1816), Chile (1818), Gran Colombia (1820), Mexico (1821), Brazil (1822) and all of Latin America except Cuba and Puerto Rico by 1830
    • Independence but not social revolution
  • • New technologies give rise to new industries

     Argentina cattle and ranching (meat, hides, wool, grains)
     Chile and peru: mining
     Central America: bananas, coffee, panama canal
     Mexico oil
    • Companies owned privately by foreign capital
    • Economies based on exports o Social costs and Consequences
    • Urban poverty
    • Appearance of slums and shantytowns: conventillos, favelas
    • Miserable working and living conditions
    • Very low wages, lack of rights for laborers
    • Urban melting pots
    • New cultural traditions
    • overpop= slums
  • Period: to

    post-independece argentina

    o Post-Independence
    • First half of 1800s:
     Instability and nationhood
     Age of caudillos (strongmen)
     Authoritarian and idiosyncratic power
     Charisma
     Populism and social control
     Nationalism
     Conservatism and elites
    • A rural economy: gauchos and the argentina pampas
  • liberal era argentina

    • Caudillos= political repression but social and economic stability
    • Attractive to foreign investment (primarily from Britain in aArgentina)
  • Cuba's "Liberal Era"

    o Cuba before the Revolution of 1959
    • Sugar, slaves and the question of independence
    • US foreign policy:
     Manifest Destiny (West expansion)
     Monroe Doctrine (mid-1800s)
     Nixon Doctrine (1970-1980s)
    • US-Spanish war of 1898
    • After the war:
     “Independence” Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines under American control
     Liberal Era in Cuba (US intervention)
  • from Gaucho to Peons

    • Foreign ownership of land for cattle ranching
    • Estancias rather than small landowners
    • Expansion into the pampas
    • Massacres of Indians
  • end of Liberal Era

     Stock market crash of 1929
     World war II (1939)
  • Cuban Rev and US Interventionalism

     Europe destroyed, US emerges as world power
     Europe split between Russia and the Allies
     End of British Empire=independence movements and new nations (Africa and SE Asia—India)
     Struggle for power between “the west” ant “the east”
  • Communism

    • Karl Marx (1818-1833)industrial revolution thinks its not fair that people work in factories and get terrible pay
    • Other terms: Marxism, socialism, left or leftist politics, “reds” or the “Red Menace”, Workers’ Party, Bolsheviks, radicalized students/workers/peasants etc
    • Idea emerges during Industrial Revolution
    • “The history of all societies is the history of class struggles”
    • Centered on inequality between the bourgeois (wealthy upper and middle class) and the proletariat poo worker
  • Communism vs. Capitalism

    • “from each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs”
    • State owned industries
    • Intense gvt regulation
    • Distribution of wealt h
    • Ideal of an egalitarian class-lass society
    • Vs
    • “to each according to his merit”
    • Private ownership
    • Little gvt regulation
    • Accumulation of capital and wage labor
    • “trickle down” effect
  • Community comes to Latin America

    • Gvt dictators, oligarchies, military
    • Cont. migration to cities
    • Inequality and social unrest
    • Why was communism/socialism an attractive ideology and for whom?
     Mexico and the muralists
     Argentina, Peron and Evita
  • Period: to

    Cold War

    • Russia perceived as threat since Russian Revolution (pre WWI)
    • After the WWII, Russian influence expands, because Soviet Union
    • Communism spread to many parts of world
  • Cuban Revolution

    o Cuba before the Revolution of 1959
    • Sugar, slaves and the question of independence
    • US foreign policy:
     Manifest Destiny (West expansion)
     Monroe Doctrine (mid-1800s)
     Nixon Doctrine (1970-1980s)
    • US-Spanish war of 1898
    • After the war:
     “Independence” Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines under American control
     Liberal Era in Cuba (US intervention)
  • making rev

    o Making Revolution
    • Military dictatorship and political unrest
    • Who became the guerilla leaders?
     Fidel Castro (b. 1926)
     Exile in Mexico and Ernesto “Che” Guevara
    • Return to Cuba and guerilla warfare
    • Who supported the guerilla?
     peasants
  • Consolidation of rev

    • Radicalization of gvt
     Nationalism of all industries and private property
     Increasingly close association with soviet Bloc and Moscow
     Suppression of political rivals and dissidents
    • Internal support vs. Cuban diaspora
    • Cont. pressure from the US:
     Bay of pigs invasion (1961)
     Cuban missile crisis (1962)
     Trade embargo (ongoing)
  • Left VS. Right

    to 1990, civil wars i Latin America
    • Guerilla movement
    • Marxism, communism, socialism
    • Poor, peasant, working class
    • Socially liberal
    • Strong nationalism, anti-US
    o Military reigmes and dictatorship
    o Capitalism
    o Military the elit and middle class
    o Socially conservative
    o US-backed
  • Guatemala "La Violencia"

    to 1996
    Guatemalan pop: 45% ladinos (descendants of Europeans and mestizos) and 55% indigenous (various Mayan groups)
    • Right-wing gvt, military and paramilitary groups (with US support) vs, leftist insurgents
    • 200 thousand dead; 40-50 thousand disappeared (mainly highland Mayan civilians)
    • 95% casualties at the hands of military and paramilitary
  • Period: to

    US Interventionism

    • 2 reasons for US interventions in Latin America
     Political ideology and power (height of the civil war)
     Economic investments in the region
    • US support for anti-left agents and movements (ex: military, elite, paramilitary groups—group of former military and operate outside of military and funded privately so have no regulations on them, etc)
    • Propaganda, military training and equipment, economic support, trade treaties, CIA covert ops
    • Prolongation of armed conflicts and civil wars,
  • Period: to

    US Interventionism 2

    civil wars, ignoring human right abuses
    • Nicaragua, El Salvi, Guatenala, Argentina, Chile
    • Enduring nationalist, ant-american, anti-capitalist
  • Period: to

    global influences

    height of cold war
    USA-counter culture and Vietnam protests, Civil Rights; Women's Rights
    Massive (Leftist) Student protests: Paris of 1968, Mexico City, Tlateloco massacre (1968)
  • Brazil 1964-1985

    Military had been powerful since the 1940s , takes control in 1964 after coup
    Brazil's economic miracle:1968-1974
    Somewhat less violent than other regimes
    1985: Free elections
  • Nicaraga:Other revolution

    • Somoza Family—3rd person in power after grandfather and father
     Owned about ¼ of productive land and were brutal in exercising power
    • Nicaragua as a “banana republic”
     Many áreas owned by private (american) industries
    • The Sadinistas
    • The revolution and after math:
     A common enemy
     Nationalism
     US pressures and radicalization
     How to govern—didn’t know what to do with the power and splitting of groups

    • Other players: Women, Catholic church
  • South America

    Economic Crisis (post WWII)
    Left-wing politics winning at polls
    Repression by right-wing military
    leftist protest movements that became urban guerillas
    Oppressive military regimes (backed by US, supported by the elite and conservative middle class)
  • Argentina : La Guerra Sucia

    Urban guerillas: mostly 20-30, educated, middle class
    Repression and Torture: "Flights of death"-drop from sky into ocean
    "Desaparecidos" and their children-taken and adopted without akcnowledgment and changig birth certificates
    Abuelas y madres de la plaze de mayo-4 killed and creates a big uprivalry by people
    Today: memory and injustice
  • Argentina

    Juan Peron, Evita and Argentinian politics
    1973: Peron return and death
    1974: Military takes over
    "Western and Christian"
    The left from portest movements to urban guerillas
  • El Salvador Civil War

    to 1992
    • High pop density, rigid class difference, land and wealth inequality
    • Military, paramilitary groups and death squads vs. FMLN (umbrella work for various left-wing organizations)
    • Reagan and the “Vietnam syndrome”
    • Victims of war: 75 thousand dead and thousands displaced
     If Mayan then you faced high possibility of being killed for accusations of supporting the guerillas
  • Spreading Rev

    • “1 2 3 vietnams”
    • The first 10 yrs
    • The making of a symbol
     Che Guevara bolivia’s campaign
    • Cuba’s support for other left-wing movements
     1960s-1970s: Venezuela, Nicaragua, Chile
     Today: Venezuela, Bolivia, Brazil, etc
    • The enduring legacy of the Cuban revolution
  • Salvadoran War Consequences

    • Truth commissions and search for justice
    • Massive immigration • Gang and drug violence: Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) and barrio 18
     Right now: Gang truce and drops in violence