Industrial Revolution, HALF

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    HALF, and Industrial Revolution

  • Britain's Issues

    First, the British needed to pay more taxes to the colonists to pay for the war they just fought with France so they passed many taxes such as the Stamp Act which wasn't so popular for the colonists; and second, Britian put forth the Proclamation of 1763 restricting settlement to the west because they feared that the colonists would start a conflich with the Amerdinians. The colonists became mad because they asked to be part of the Parliment but were declined so they started revolting.
  • Invention of the Steam Engine

    James Watt created the steam engine in 1764. The steam engine allowed factories to work outside of river banks. Steam engines also led to many other inventions such as trains and greatly affected the Industrial Revolution. Steam engines allowed more machines to work with less people. More factories were built also causing pollution in the air.
  • Boston Massacre

    Marks the start of the American Revolution. The Boston Massacre was a riot between the colonists and the British soldiers shot five civilians. The colonist enranged, declared independence and started the Revolution.
  • American Declaration of Independence

    The Declaration of Independence was mostly influenced by the Enlightenment ideals. It declared that Americans should have the right of property, liberty, and pursuit of happiness.
  • Wealth of Nations

    Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations was written in (1776) and argued for a free-market trade; it was the most famous act of laissez faire. At the time, the economic use was mercantilism, where the government controlled export and import with their colonies. The Wealth of Nations argued that the government shouldn't take control of the market; people should have the freedom to invest and make profit of their own markets. It made the Industrial Revolution to be controlled by capitalism; free-market.
  • French allied with the Americans

    France allied America during the Revolution. France provided more weapons and clothings since the revolutionaries didn't had much supplies. Later, this will contribute with France's bankruptcy and it greatly helped in the American Revolution.
  • Population Increase in Europe

    Population began to rapidly increase due to the surplus of food from the New World; more food equals more people and the diversity of food made people more resistance to disease. New crops such as clover and turnips helped the soil to renourish, and potatoes were produced easier in greater amounts.
  • Treaty of Paris

    End American Revolution. United States wasn't controlled by a king anymore. The American Revolution led to the abolition of slavery and women's rights a century later because people questioned that the liberty to pursuit happiness and equality was for everyone; it included colored people and women.
  • Storming of Bastille & Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizens

    The French Revolution started at the Storming of Bastille after the political crisis that King Louis XVI wanted to tax the Thrid Estate more because of war payments. The Third Estate, being 97% of the population, revolted. They destroyed the Bastille prison (freed seven prisioners) and took all their weaponary. King Louis then had to abide by the rebel's rules and his powers were decreased when he was forced to sign the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizens.
  • Slaves Revolt in Saint Domingue

    Saint Domingue, one one the richest French colony that produced sugar, cotton, indogio, and coffee, was the start of the Haitian Revolution. France administration was weak in the colonies when the French Revolution was occuring so the slaves and free-born colored started revolting against the plant owners; a war started, whites and colored fighting and many plantations were destroyed.
  • Reign of Terror

    Robespierre led to the Rise of the Jacobins and declared that France was a Republic. Soon after, Robespierre became a dictator and executed more than 40,000 civilians. The Committee of Public Safety murdered anybody who spoke against or was any threat to the "republic". This time was known as the Reign of Terror.
  • Abolishment of Slavery of France

    In 1794, the National Convention in Paris abolish slavery in all of France and French colonies. It contributed to the Haitian Revolution by forcing the colonies to free the slaves.
  • The Directory

    The Reign of Terror ended with Robespierre's execution. Seeing that a republic was not going to work, the French created the Directory, a two house legislature and an executive body of only five men. The army's general, Napolean Bonaparte, Took over the Directory and soon conquered almost all of Europe. Although France was stable, Napolean restricted the freedom of speech from people and he dictated them.
  • Toussaint L'Ouverture defeats British in Haiti

    Tousssaint L' Ouverture led an invasion and freed slaves in the Spanish colony of Santo Domingo, and defeated a British expeditionary force. Meanwhile in France, the Directory wanted to reestrablish the use of slavery but Toussaint protested. This caused Toussaint's position to be threatened.
  • Napoleon Takes Over the Directory

    Napoleon took dictatorship of the Directory and called himself dictator. Although Napoleon opressed the freedom of speech and expression, he kept France stable. He soon took over almost all of Europe except for Russia, Britian, and the northern parts of Africa.
  • Toussaint's Capture

    Napolean sent a military force to Saint Domingue to reestablish slavery and colonial authority. Toussaint was captured and sent to France; there he died in prison. However, Napolean's military force mostly died of yellow fever soon after.
  • Haitians defeat French invasion and declare independence

    In 1804, Toussaint's rebels declared independence and became a republic. In the end of the revolution, thousands of people had died, their economy was bad, and the public administration was corrupted.
  • Ferdinand VII took the Spanish Throne

    Napoleon made the Spanish King Ferdinand VII reject his court and made his brother, Joseph Bonaparte to take the throne. The Spanish colonist became enranged because a French was ruling them. They started creating Juntas and soon enough, the Latin American colonies revolutionized.
  • Independence wars in Latin America

    In 1810, South America's Juntas started to be led by Simon Bolivar. He made many of the South American countries independent such as Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador. He tried to unite the countries together but they soon disbanded.
  • Napolean defeated at Waterloo

    Marks the end of the French Revolution. The Congress of Vienna restored the monarchs to the thrones of Europes. Eurpoe redid their borders and created nationalism, the pride of their nation. The French Revolution inspired the Latin and Haitian countries to revolt later on.
  • Mexico's Independence

    Mexico started revolting in 1810 when they heard the news that Spain was invaded by Napolean. Many rural and urban poor then battled the colonial officials and military. Many poeple died during those battles. After a few years, the revolutionaries military force improved and fought until 1821 when Colonel Agusting de Iturbide made an alliance with the revolutionaries and declared Mexico's independence. Mexico was first a monarcy but later a republic.
  • Brazil's Independence

    The Portuguese first fled to Brazil in 1808. It wasn't until Napoleon was defeated that the Portuguese family came back but King John VI left his son Pedro in Brazil to take care of the colony for they won't revolt. Pedro sided then with the people who wanted independence and declared Brazil's independence in 1822. Brazil became a constitutional monarchy with Pedro as emperor.
  • Factory Act

    The Factory Act was passed through the Parliment to regulate factory condition. It lowered the hours children and women had to work. It also restricted children under 18 to work no more than 12 hours. It lowered child labor and later led to all workers to have an eight hour working shift.
  • The Second Industrial Revolution

    The production and discoveries of electricity and chemicals led is called the Second Industrial Revolution. Electricity allowed new inventions such as the telegraph, telephone, and the lightbulb; the lightbulb allowed workers to work more later times. Chemical usage such as medicine dramatically decrease diseases and deaths.
  • Pedro II Overthrown by Republicans

    Pedro I wasn't liked by Brazil anymore when he wanted to abolish slavery in 1830 and still controled Uruguay. He soon after resigned and his son, Pedro II took over the thrown until republicans overthrew Pedro II in 1889.