History of Canada - Nikita Buchko

By bnik98
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    Hudson Bay Company's Control of Rupert's Land

    From 1670 to 1821 the Hudson's Bay Company controlled Rupert's Land (land around rivers flowing into Huson's Bay) giving the Hudson's Bay Company a monopoly for beaver trade in the area.
  • End of Seven Years War

    End of Seven Years War
    In 1759 Great Britain (under General Wolfe) defeated France (under General Montcalme) in the Seven Years War. The conflict began when both powers wanted land on the Atlantic coast.
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    British Occupation of Great Lakes Area

    During this time period, Britain occupied the area around the Great Lakes.
  • Treaty of Paris (1763)

    Treaty of Paris (1763)
    The Treaty of Paris was signed between Brittain and France allowing the latter to keep 2 islands off of the Atlantic coast, Saint Pierre and Miquelon.
  • Royal Proclamation of 1763

    Royal Proclamation of 1763
    The Royal Proclomation of 1763 involved the British government using assimilation to make the French follow British culture, religion, laws as well as language. Additionally, the Quebec lands were given to the First Nations as an effort to stabilize relations. This proclomation was issued after the British victory over the French in the Seven Years War.
  • Quebec Act

    Quebec Act
    The Quebec Act allowed the French in Canada to retain their Roman Catholic religion, French language, French civil law for private matters (English law for public matters and criminal prosecution, however), and gave the French back most of the land given to the Indians as part of the Royal Proclamation of 1763. The Quebec Act was made in hopes of gaining French loyalty, increasing the fur trade, and strengthen the British Empire.
  • Loyalist Migration

    Loyalist Migration
    The Loyalists (people loyal to the King of England),after suffering animosity from the Patriots (ones fighting for American independence) migrated north to Canada. This caused some problems to arise between English speakers who moved to Quebec and the French who lived there (see Constitutional Act of 1791).
  • Founding of North West Company

    Founding of North West Company
    The North West Company was founded, made to compete against rival company Hudson's Bay Company.
  • Treaty of Paris (1783)

    Treaty of Paris (1783)
    The Treaty of Paris ended the American Revolution (War of Independence) and caused Britain tosurrender the lands south of the Great Lakes (known as the 13 Colonies) to the Americans (Patriots).
  • Addition of New Brunswick and Cape Breton Island

    Addition of New Brunswick and Cape Breton Island
    Due to a large Loyalist population in the Atlantic area, two British colonies were created: Nova Scotia and Cape Breton Island in 1784.
  • Constitutional Act of 1791

    Constitutional Act of 1791
    The Constitutional Act of 1791 was issued when conflicts occured between the Untied Empire Loyalists who migrated from the U.S.A. The Act split Canada into Upper Canada (English area and Ontario) and Lower Canada (Quebec area). Each side had a Representative Vote.
  • Arrival of Selkirk's First Settlers

    Arrival of Selkirk's First Settlers
    Lord Selkirk's first group of Scottish settlers arrived at York Factory in 1811. They endured a difficult winter and bad living conditions, but survived with the help of first Nations and the Metis.
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    War of 1812

    The War of 1812 was declared by the Americans against the British in 1812. The war had no clear winner and its outcome was "status quo ante bellum" - "the state things were before the war".
  • Pemmincan Proclamation

    Pemmincan Proclamation
    The Pemmican Proclamation of 1814 was announced and it meant that no food could be taken from Assiboia without a license. The Metis sold pemmican to traders and this was an important income source for them.
  • Corn Laws

    Corn Laws
    The Corn Laws were put in order in 1815. They stated that they would only take wheat from Britain or BNA, which gave BNA farmers a steady source of income. The laws were repealed later on (see Repeal of the Corn Laws).
  • Battle of Seven Oaks

    Battle of Seven Oaks
    The Battle of Seven Oaks was a confrontation between the Metis and a new governor. During talks, a conflict began and it ended with one Metis and 22 settlers dying.
  • Merging of Hudson's Bay Company and North West Company

    Merging of Hudson's Bay Company and North West Company
    Two rival fur trading companies, the Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company were forced to merge after heated competition, ending in small armed conflicts breaking out.
  • Building of Lachine Canal

    Building of Lachine Canal
    The Lachine Canal was built to bypass the rapids of the St. Lawrence River.
  • Building of Welland Canal

    Building of Welland Canal
    The Welland Canal was built in 1829 to bypass Niagra Falls.
  • 92 Resolutions

    92 Resolutions
    The 92 Resolutions was a list of resolutions drafted by Louis-Joseph Papineau. The Resolutions were a list of demands to change the government so that it would be better suited to the French in BNA, such as letting Lower Canada have control of taxes over its own residents instead of Britain. The 92 Resolutions were rejected.
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    Lord Elgin n in Power

    For 8 years, from 1846 to 1854, Lord Elgin was the Governor General of Canada.
  • Repeal of the Corn Laws

    Repeal of the Corn Laws
    The Corn Laws (see Corn Laws) were repealed in 1846. This caused many farmers in BNA to lose a stable source of income and move to the U.S., abandoning their sawmills.
  • Responsible Government: Nova Scotia

    Responsible Government: Nova Scotia
    Responsible government was achieved in Nova Scotia in 1847. Responsible government is when executive council members are chosen from the party with the most seats in the Legislative Assembly.
  • Rebellion Losses Bill

    Rebellion Losses Bill
    The Rebellion Losses Bill was signed by Lord Elgin in 1849 to provide reimbursement for losses that happened to the people of Canada East during the 1837-1838 Rebellions. Lord Elgin was forced to sign this due to representatives passing it. It caused the burning of the Parliament Buildings.
  • Responsible Government: United Province of Canada

    Responsible Government: United Province of Canada
    Canada East and West achieved responsible government (see Responsible Government: Nova Scotia) in 1849.
  • Burning of the Montreal Parliament Buildings

    Burning of the Montreal Parliament Buildings
    The Parliament building were burned in Montreal in 1849 by protesters angered by the Rebellion Losses Bill. It caused the Parliament location to switch from Toronto to Quebec City every two years until 1859.
  • La Survivance

    La Survivance
    La Survivance is the survival of French-Canadian culture. Since the Great Migration of 1851 Canada East ceased to have a higher population than Canada West and voters were losing in Parliament. To combat this Louis Hippolyte La Fontaine led Canadiens to vote as a bloc, or a group in the Legislature. This caused a deadlock in Parliament because the same amount of voters voted for and against a law, not allowing it to be passed.
  • Building of St. Lawrence - Atlantic Railway

    Building of St. Lawrence - Atlantic Railway
    In 1853 the first longer railway was completed in Canada and it streched from the St. Lawrence River to the Atlantic Ocean.
  • Reciprocity Treaty

    Reciprocity Treaty
    The Reciprocity Treaty was a free trade agreement between BNA and the U.S. on raw materials: tariffs would not be charged for trade between the two. The Reciprocity Treaty was later ended (see End of the Reciprocity Treaty).
  • Fraser Gold Rush

    Fraser Gold Rush
    Gold was found in the Fraser River in 1858, which caused much prospecting and settlement (ranches, farms) in the area of British Columbia. This was a problem for the First Nations since their rights were not considered.
  • Ottawa Decided as Capital

    Ottawa Decided as Capital
    In 1859 Ottawa was declared the new capital city of the Province of Canada, after the capital being switched from Toronto to Quebec City every two years.
  • The Great Coalition

    The Great Coalition
    John A. Macdonald, George Brown, and George-Etienne Cartier formed the Great Coalition to stop political deadlock.
  • Charlottetown Conference

    Charlottetown Conference
    The Charlottetown Conference was one of the first efforts to encourage Confederation. It was a meeting of delegates from Canadian colonies (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, PEI, and the United Province of Canada) and Britain. Although Confederation was discussed, this conference, in comparison with the Quebec Conference, was more like a social event for people to become accustomed with the idea of Confederate Union and to socialize. The Charlottetown Conference ended after 9 days, on September 9th.
  • Quebec Conference

    Quebec Conference
    The Quebec Conference was a conference similar to the Charlottetown Conference (see Charlottetown Conference) and it encouraged the idea of Confederation. Confederation was seriously discussed after the Charlottetown Conference, with the same colonies attending but with the addition of observers from New Brunswick. This was much more serious than the Charlottetown Conference since it was many productive discussions instead of a social event. The 72 Resolutions were writen there.
  • End of Reciprocity Treaty

    End of Reciprocity Treaty
    The Reciprocity Treaty (see Reciprocity Treaty) ended in 1866. This was a supporting point for Confederation because this meant the end of free trade and was a disadvantage to merchants.
  • Fenians Annexation Bill

    Fenians Annexation Bill
    The Fenians Annexation Bill was prposed to the United States government by the Fenians to annex the area of Canada from Canada West to B.C. It was not passed.
  • London Conference. BNA Act.

    London Conference. BNA Act.
    The London Conference was the final conference before Confederation. In the London Conference Confederation was planned out and the BNA Act, doubling as Canada's Constitution was written. The BNA Act created the Dominion of Canada when it was signed by the Queen and by the colonies of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Canada East, and Canada West.
  • Confederation

    Confederation occured on July 1, 1867, and it was the day when Canada seperated from Britain and became a seperate country, consisting of former British colonies Canada East and West, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. The main reasons for these colonies to join were that a railway would be buit, that political deadlock would stop through by making rep by pop, a free trade agreement with the U.S.A., the threat of American invasion, Britain wanting colonies to be independent, and expansion into NWT.
  • Purchase of Alaska by the U.S.

    Purchase of Alaska by the U.S.
    The United States of America purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire in 1867 for $7.2 million. This created a further threat of American invasion, seeing as the U.S.A. was nearly surrounding Canada - it had a long border on the north, shorelines that could be a passage into BNA colonies, and now a border in the north.
  • Canada Buys Rupert's Land and NWT

    Canada Buys Rupert's Land and NWT
    Canada bought Rupert's Land and the Northwest Territory from the Hudson's Bay Company in 1869.
  • Surveyors Enter Metis Territory

    Surveyors Enter Metis Territory
    Surveyors went into Metis territory and began to mark land in grids, unlike the Metis, who used the French Seigneurial system: dividing land into strips along a river. Metis peole and settlers were not consulted and they removed the stakes. This caused the surveyors to leave.
  • Red River Rebellion

    Red River Rebellion
    The Red River Rebellion began in 1869.
  • William McDougall appointed Liutenant-Governor

    William McDougall appointed Liutenant-Governor
    John A. Macdonald appointed William McDougall as the Liutenant Governor for NWT. He tried to go into Metis territory but was stopped by 14 armed Metis.
  • Metis Capture Upper Fort Garry

    Metis Capture Upper Fort Garry
    The Metis aptured Upper Fort Garry (HBC HQ). They settled in the fort, which had ammo and food. Canadian forces could not arrive during winter time. The Metis set up a provisional government (short term).
  • Metis Bill of Rights

    Metis Bill of Rights
    The Metis Bill of Rights was a list of conditions that the Metis wanted the Canadian government to abide by. The conditions included a Legislative Assembly to pass local laws, both French and English people to be recognized in court, amnesty for those involved in the Red River Rebellion, and more.
  • Manitoba Joins

    Manitoba Joins
    Manitoba was created by the Canadian government for the Metis to have more control, however, the size of the land was very small.
  • British Columbia Joins

    British Columbia Joins
    B.C. joined after MacDonald promised them a railway within 10 years of joining Confederation. B.C. agreed to join in 1871.
  • Pacific Scandal

    Pacific Scandal
    The Pacific Scandal occurred when it was discovered that John A. MacDonald, Canada's first Prime Minister was taking bribes to fund an election. Companies were encouraged to bid to invest in the railway by giving them free land and financial help. Many companies wanted to win, but MacDonald was given a bribe by Sir Hugh Allan of $360 000 ($7 million today). This caused a resignation by MacDonald.
  • Dominion Lands Act

    Dominion Lands Act
    The Dominion Lands Act was a further push for the expansion of the West. It gave settlers 65 hectares of land for a $10 deposit. The deposit would be returned if the settler lived on the land for 3 years and the land would be free. Clifford Sifton, the Minister of Immigration, advertised (false advertising) this in other countries to attract foreign settlers.
  • Creation of Northwest Mounted Police

    Creation of Northwest Mounted Police
    The Northwest Mounted Police were created by John A. Macdonald in 1873 to create peace and order in the Northwest: to guard CPR construction, stop whiskey trades, etc.
  • PEI Joins Confederation

    PEI Joins Confederation
    PEI joined Canada in Confederation in 1873. Although against Confederation at first, PEI saw that trade in Confederate provinces increased and PEI itself did not prosper. After MacDonald offered to take over PEI's debt if they joined, PEI joined Confederation.
  • Cypres Hills Massacre

    Cypres Hills Massacre
    The Cypres Hills Massacre occured in 1873 when a misunderstanding occurred with American wolfers getting their horses stolen. It ended with 24 deaths.
  • Alexander Mackenzie in Power

    Alexander Mackenzie in Power
    Alexander Mackenzie, won the election of 1874 for the Liberal Party. He implemented the secret ballot and filed a statement on how much is spent on the campaign to monitor fairness. During his time in power, railway construction slowed.
  • Indian Act

    Indian Act
    The Indian Act was passed so that the First Nation peoples would give up their land. It had several conditions, such as "Indian Status" and monetary reimbursement for the land taken away.
  • MacDonald Returns to Power

    MacDonald Returns to Power
    MacDonald returned to power after proposing a National Policy that among other things, involved settlement of the West and a railway.
  • Metis Petition for Rights Once More

    Metis Petition for Rights Once More
    The Metis petitioned for their rights again and called on Louis Riel for help in 1885.
  • First Nations Seize Batoche. Metis War.

    First Nations Seize Batoche. Metis War.
    The Metis seized the Protestant church Batoche in 1885 with the support of Big Bear and Crowfoot. They set up a second provisional government. This caused a war. Gabriel Dumont was the military commander for the Metis. In the end, the First Nations were defeated. Louis Riel was convicted for high treason to the Queen and gov't. He was publicly hanged despite Q. Victoria advising against it.
  • CPR Finished

    CPR Finished
    The construction of the CPR finished in 1885. The last spike was driven in by Donald Smith in Craigellachie, B.C.
  • Yukon Joins Canada

    Yukon Joins Canada
    Yukon Joined Canada in 1898.
  • Saskatchewan and Alberta Join Canada

    Saskatchewan and Alberta Join Canada
    Saskatchewan and Alberta both joined Canada in 1905.
  • Newfoundland Joins

    Newfoundland Joins
    Newfoundland joined Canada in 1949. It was renamend Newfoundland and Labrador in 2001.
  • Nunavut Joins Canada

    Nunavut Joins Canada
    Nunavut, the last teritory to join Canada, joined in 1999.