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Guerra Civil Española

  • Crisis 1866

    Crisis 1866
    the crisis of 1866 contributed to the discredit of the moderate governments at the end of the reign of Elizabeth II and the subsequent revolution of 1868.
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    I Republic

    The proclamation of the First Republic occurred on February 11, 1873. This period had 4 presidents in the two years of government: the first president was Figueras, the second was Pi y Margall, the third president was Nicolás Salmerón and the last one was Emilio Castelar. This ended on December 29, 1874, General Martinez Campos made a military statement in Sagunto, in which he proclaimed Prince Alfonso as King of Spain, without the central government doing anything to prevent it.
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    Reign of Alfonso XII "The Peacemaker"

    The reign of Alfonso XII comes to an end, but without an heir yet, this gives rise to a period of Regency in which his wife, Maria Christina of Hapsburg, reigns.
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    Rural exodus

    It refers to the migration, generally of young people (teenagers and young adults) from the countryside to the city. This process accelerated with the Industrial Revolution. It is considered a special type of migration because it involves not only a change in place of residence, but also a change in profession, given the great geographical differences between opportunities.
  • Introducción de las novedades de la II Revolución Industrial

    Introducción de las novedades de la II Revolución Industrial
    Novelties were introduced such as hydroelectric and thermal power plants, automotive, chemical and electrical material industries
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    Regency of Mary Christine of Habsburg

    The Regency of Maria Christina of Habsburg is the period of the reign of Alfonso XIII of Spain in which due to the minority of King Alfonso XIII the head of state was held by his mother Maria Christina of Habsburg-Lorraine. The Regency period ends in 1902 with the accession to the throne of Alfonso XI
  • Spanish - American War

    Spanish - American War
    The Spanish-American War is also known as the Disaster of '98. This war consists of the loss of the last Spanish colonies (Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines) after 400 years of Spanish Hegemony
  • Gasset Plan

     Gasset  Plan
    This plan was a mere catalogue of canals and marshes scattered throughout the territory without any logical criteria or connection between them. The lines proposed favoured the works on the Atlantic side. This plan had an expiry date, however, it was in force until the drafting of the Royal Decree of 5 March 1926. Numerous reforms were made in 1909, 1916 and 1919. This plan improved the country's hydraulic policy
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    Reign of Alfonso XIII "The African"

    Alfonso XIII was King of Spain from his birth. King Alfonso XIII said that it was an educated person to eat sardines with his hands. Another curiosity of this King is that he never abdicated, he simply left the country.
  • Electoral Reform Law

    Electoral Reform Law
    The Electoral Law of 1907 was a Spanish electoral law approved by the Cortes in August 1907 during the long government of Antonio Maura. The new law was part of the plan to reform the political regime of the Restoration launched by the conservative Antonio Maura and which he called "revolution from above".
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    Spanish Flu Epidemic

    The Spanish Flu killed over 40 million people worldwide. Spain was one of the most affected countries in the world with 8 million infected and 300,000 dead, despite not being the epicenter.
  • Signing of the Treaty of Versailles

    Signing of the Treaty of Versailles
    It was signed on June 28, 1919 in the Gallery of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles, exactly five years after the attack on Sarajevo in which Archduke Franz Ferdinand was killed, even though the armistice was signed months earlier to end hostilities on the battlefield, it took six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude the peace treaty. The Treaty of Versailles entered into force on January 10, 1920.
  • Primo de Rivera's coup d'état

    Primo de Rivera's coup d'état
    In 1922 he was appointed general capital of Barcelona and, from this position, spurred on by the Annual Disaster, he began to prepare a military pronouncement that finally arrived on September 13, 1923.
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    Primo de Rivera's Dictatorship

    The Spanish decadence reached its bottom, causing a serious political crisis that put the monarchy of Alfonso XIII itself in check. Alfonso XIII's reaction to Miguel Primo de Rivera's coup d'état was one of support, while he turned his back on the government of Manuel García Prieto, Marquis of Al Hoceima, who was calling for the arrest of the military rebels. The King ended up naming Miguel Primo de Rivera as head of the Executive, in the form of president of the Military Directorate.
  • Great Depression

    Great Depression
    The 1929 Crisis (Great Depression) was a global financial crisis that lasted through the 1930s, in the years leading up to World War II. It began in the United States and spread throughout the world
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    After the resignation of Primo de Rivera on the 28th, the successive governments were unable to re-establish an order capable of ensuring the supervening of the monarchy.the Republic was conceived as the most suitable form of State to carry them out. This was the democratic regime that existed in Spain between 14 April 1931, the date of its proclamation, replacing the monarchy of Alfonso XIII, and 1 April, the date of the end of the Civil War, which gave way to Franco's dictatorship.
  • Casas Viejas Uprising (Cádiz)

    Casas Viejas Uprising (Cádiz)
    The name given to the episodes that took place between the 10th and 12th of January 1933 in the small town of Casas Viejas, in the province of Cadiz, and which constitute one of the most tragic events of the Second Spanish Republic, has gone down in history. It opened an enormous political crisis in the first two years of the Republic and was the beginning of the loss of political and social support that would lead months later to the fall of the Republican-Socialist government of Manuel Azaña.
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    Segovia Offensive

    Colonel Matallana devised a plan of surprise attack on Segovia, with the intention of conquering the capital of the province and deepening enemy territory towards Valladolid. The operation was prepared too hastily, so that the Nationalists noticed the movements of the Republican troops, and the surprise factor disappeared. At the same time, the Republican troops arrived at their attack positions very tired, after exhausting marches on foot through the mountains.
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    Brunete Battle

    This offensive launched by the Republican army was intended to reduce the pressure exerted by the forces of the Bando Nacional on Madrid and, at the same time, to alleviate the situation on the northern front
  • Coup d'état of 1936

    Coup d'état of 1936
    The coup d'état in Spain was a military uprising against the government of the Second Republic that emerged from the February elections held in July of that year, following the assassination of the main opposition leader. The action that started the Spanish Civil War took place in Melilla on July 17, 1936. The officers of the Melilla garrison who were part of the conspiracy held a meeting in the Army's mapping room to finalize the plans.
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    Spanish Civil War

    After the partial failure of the coup d'état carried out by the armed forces against the government of the Second Republic and the blockade of the Straits of Gibraltar and the subsequent airlift that, thanks to the rapid collaboration of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, brought the rebel troops to the peninsula in the last weeks of July, a civil war began that would end in April 1939 with the last warrant signed by Francisco Franco.
  • Take of Salamanca

    Take of Salamanca
    In the province of Salamanca, which had two regiments, the rebels declared a state of war on July 19, 1936 and easily took control of the city and the province in a few days, with no more opposition than a weak resistance in Béjar and Ciudad Rodrigo. Quickly, columns of military and Falangist volunteers were formed to join the forces that from Valladolid
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    Siege of Gijón

    The rebel forces wanted to proclaim a state of war in the city. The siege began on July 20 and ended on August 21 with the Republican victory
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    Siege of Oviedo

    The siege of Oviedo refers to the military operations that took place around this city during the first months of the Spanish Civil War, pitting the rebellious or "national" forces against forces loyal to the Republican government and, mainly, the powerful workers' militias
  • Siege of the Alcazar of Toledo

    Siege of the Alcazar of Toledo
    In this battle, government militiamen from the Popular Front and military rebels from the National Side clashed. The latter took refuge in the Alcazar de Toledo, then the Academy of Infantry, Cavalry and Quartermasters, accompanied by their families. The Republican forces began the siege on the fort on July 21, 1936
  • Victory Convoy

    Victory Convoy
    The "Convoy of Victory" was a naval air confrontation in the waters of the Strait of Gibraltar that took place on August 5, 1936 between the national forces, who were trying to break the blockade of the Strait and transport troops and material from North Africa to the peninsula, and the republicans, who were blocking it.
  • Battle of Badajoz

    Battle of Badajoz
    The battle of Badajoz, which took place in this city in western Spain on the border with Portugal, was a military confrontation that took place in August 1936 during the Spanish Civil War
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    Landing of Mallorca

    The landing of Mallorca was an operation carried out between August and September 1936. Had this landing been successful, the outcome of the Spanish Civil War would have been very different, as Mallorca became, a posteriori, a naval base for Franco's fleet that blocked maritime communications. From 23 July onwards, various actions were taken against the rebels and on the same day the Republican planes bombed Palma de Mallorca.
  • Appointment of Generalissimo Franco

    Appointment of Generalissimo Franco
    The appointment of Generalissimo Franco took place on 21 September 1936 at the San Fernando airfield (Salamanca), during a meeting of senior military commanders from the army sector that had risen the previous July. The appointment was made official by the National Defence Board on the 30th of the same month, simultaneously with Franco's appointment as head of the government on 28 September.
  • Battle of Cape Spartan

    Battle of Cape Spartan
    The Republican government ordered the fleet to sail to the Bay of Biscay to help the Republican troops after the disasters in Irún, Fuenterrabía and San Sebastián. In addition, Franco's ships imposed a strong blockade on the northern coast, leaving the squares of Bilbao, Gijón and Santander without adequate supplies. On 19 September 1936, the Republican fleet set sail northwards with the order to join the five submarines that were in the Bay of Biscay.
  • Siege of Madrid

    Siege of Madrid
    Franco's pressure on Madrid was reflected in a siege that did not cease for a single moment: Franco was patient and preferred to wait until Madrid was exhausted before attacking. After the repeated failures to take over the capital, the strategy of the Bando Nacional was to take control of the northern strip, which remained loyal to the Republican power.
  • Battle of Bilbao

    Battle of Bilbao
    The battle of Bilbao took place in the city of the same name, on the right bank of the estuary and the Sierra del Ganguren between Bilbao and Galdácano during June 1937, in the context of the Spanish Civil War and, more specifically, of the fighting that was taking place in Vizcaya.
  • Battle of Jarama

    Battle of Jarama
    This battle took place between February 6 and 27, 1937. The offensive was initiated by the National Party with the intention of cutting off communications to Madrid
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    Guadalajara Battle

    The battle of Guadalajara was a confrontation in the Spanish civil war that took place around the city of Guadalajara in an attempt to penetrate the capital of Spain from the north
  • Bombing of Durango

    Bombing of Durango
    The Biscayan town of Durango was bombed and machine-gunned by Franco's air force under the orders of General Emilio Mola. This war action was one of the pioneers in the use of aviation for the bombing of urban centres
  • Bombing of the Guernica

    Bombing of the Guernica
    The bombing of Guernica, also known as "Operation Rügen", was an air attack carried out on this symbolic Basque town on April 26, 1937 by the German Condor Legion and the Italian Legionary Aviation, who were fighting in favour of the Nationalist side. It consisted of a carpet bombing, that is, it was a tactical bombing of an area by means of a large number of free-falling bombs, often combined with incendiary bombs
  • Battle of Albarracín

    Battle of Albarracín
    To force the enemy to maintain their positions on this front, the Republicans of Aragon planned to launch a small offensive on Albarracín. However, the objective on the Teruel front was to wrap up the Teruel capital from the rear. The population was quickly conquered, with the exception of two resistance nuclei concentrated in the Civil Guard barracks and the cathedral, made up of some military and civilian supporters of the Bando Nacional.
  • Santander Battle

    Santander Battle
    On August 14, 1937, operations began by the National Guard with the bombardment of the Republican positions by means of artillery and aviation, the objective being the Mataporquera railway junction. The aim was to threaten the main Republican communication artery, thus leaving the troops in a critical situation in the south of the Cantabrian mountain range. The Navarrese brigades broke the Republican line on the southern front, which was severely punished by the aerial bombers.
  • Belchite Battle

     Belchite Battle
    On 24 August 1937, General Pozas launched a simultaneous attack on three fundamental points and five secondary points in the direction of Zaragoza. 80,000 men, three Republican aviation squadrons and 105 Soviet T-26s took part.
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    Teruel Battle

    Teruel was defended by a line of trenches and wire fences that had been prepared some time ago as it was considered to be a very threatened outcrop by the Republicans. Franco's troops decided to present a resolute defence of their positions inside the city.
  • Ebro Battle

     Ebro Battle
    After the conquest of Teruel by Franco's troops on 20 February 1938, they launched an offensive in Aragon that destroyed the enemy's defences and completely wiped out the Republicans in the area.
  • Battle of Cabo de Palos

    Battle of Cabo de Palos
    The Battle of Cabo de Palos was the largest naval battle of the Spanish Civil War and also the one that involved the largest number of ships in the entire contest. About 70 miles from Cabo de Palos
  • Bombing of Alicante's Central Market

    Bombing of Alicante's Central Market
    This bombing was part of the campaign of intimidation ordered by the national authorities when they reached the Mediterranean and began the consequent advance on Valencia. Almost a dozen Savoia SM-79 planes of the Bando Nacional dropped about 90 bombs on the town of Alicante, some of which fell on the crowded Mercado Central.
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    Cataluña Battle

    In order to take over Catalonia, the National Party decided to fragment the republican area in two, leaving the provinces of Valencia, Alicante, Murcia and some of Castilla la Mancha to the south and a territory that included the provinces of Tarragona, Barcelona and Girona to the north, as was achieved in April 1938 with the break-up of the Aragon front. Catalonia was isolated, however the city of Barcelona was the seat of the republican government itself.
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    Franco's Dictatorship

    The end of the war did not mean the end of political violence or a return to normality. The winner had no intention of forgiving his opponents or initiating national reconciliation. The new political system was based on the division between winners and losers, and the post-war period was marked by repression and political persecution, shortages of food and basic necessities, and the interplay of influences from the different families that had formed the victorious finished 20/11/1975