19th Century

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    Reign of Joseph I

    Joseph I was Holy Roman Emperor and ruler of the Austrian Habsburg monarchy from 1705 until his death in 1711.
  • Steam engines

     Steam engines
    steam engines started to replace water and wind power, and eventually became the dominant source of power in the late 19th century
  • Pragmatic Santion

    Pragmatic Santion
    The Pragmatic Sanction was an edict issued by Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI, on 19 April 1713 to ensure that the Habsburg monarchy, could be inherited by a daughter undivided.
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    Reign Charles IV

    Charles IV was King of Spain and ruler of the Spanish Empire from 1788 to 1808. The Spain inherited by Charles IV gave few indications of instability, but during his reign, Spain entered a series of disadvantageous alliances.
  • Flying shuttle

    Flying shuttle
    The flying shuttle is a type of weaving shuttle. It was a pivotal advancement in the mechanisation of weaving during the initial stages of the Industrial Revolution.
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    First industrial revolution

  • Spinning jenny

    Spinning jenny
    The spinning jenny is a multi-spindle spinning frame, and was one of the key developments in the industrialisation of textile manufacturing during the early Industrial Revolution.
  • Water frame

    Water frame
    It was designed a model for the production of cotton thread, which was first used in 1765. The Arkwright water frame was able to spin 96 threads at a time, which was an easier and faster method than ever before.
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    War of Independence

    American War of Independence, was the military conflict of the American Revolution. American Patriot forces largely under George Washington's command defeated the British.

    The spinning mule is a machine used to spin cotton and other fibres.
  • Steamship

    Is a type of steam-powered vessel, typically ocean-faring and seaworthy, that is propelled by one or more steam engines.
  • Power loom

    Power loom
    A power loom is a mechanized loom, and was one of the key developments in the industrialization of weaving during the early Industrial Revolution.
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    National Assembly

    The Third Estate proposed a new voting system in which each representative would have an individual vote.
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    Constituent Assembly

    A new Constituent Assembly was elected to write a constitution
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    The Legislative Assembly

    A new Legislative Assembly was elected. It was dominated by two groups, the Girondins amd the Jacobins
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    The Convention

    New assembly, Convention.
  • The Treaty of Basel

    The Treaty of Basel was a turning point in the centuries of conflict between the Swiss communities in the valleys of the Alps and the Habsburgs
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    The Directory and the Consulate

    Conservative government which was composed of five members.
  • Treaty of San Ildefonso

    Treaty of San Ildefonso
    The Third Treaty of San Ildefonso was a secret agreement signed on 1 October 1800 between the Spanish Empire and the French Republic by which Spain agreed in principle to exchange its North American colony of Louisiana for territories in Tuscany
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    Approval of the Civil Code

    Napoleon Bonaparte declared himself Emperator of France and he established the Civil Code
  • Napoleon declared himself King of Italy

    Napoleon declared himself King of Italy
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    Battle of Waterloo/ End of the empire

    Napoleon was finally defeated in 1815.
  • Revolt of Aranjuez

    Revolt of Aranjuez
    Revolt od Aranjuez was an uprising led against King Charles IV that took place in the town of Aranjuez, Spain, on 17–19 March 1808. The event, which is celebrated annually in the first week of September, commemorates the fall of the monarch and the subsequent accession of his son Ferdinand VII.

    Uprising of the people of Madrid, the work, Goya sought to commemorate Spanish resistance to Napoleon's armies during the occupation of 1808 in the Peninsular War.
  • The Abdications of Bayonne

    The Abdications of Bayonne
    The Abdications of Bayonne took place on 7 May 1808 in the castle of Marracq in Bayonne when the French emperor Napoleon I forced two Charles IV and his son, Ferdinand VII to renounce the throne in his favour.
  • Battle of Bailén

    Battle of Bailén
    The Battle of Bailén was fought in 1808 between the Spanish Army of Andalusia, led by General Francisco Javier Castaños and the Imperial French Army's II corps d'observation de la Gironde under General Pierre Dupont de l'Étang. This battle was the first open-field defeat of a Napoleonic army
  • The Cortes of Cádiz

    The Cortes of Cádiz
    The Cortes of Cádiz was a revival of the traditional cortes (Spanish parliament), which as an institution had not functioned for many years, but it met as a single body, rather than divided into estates as with previous ones.
  • Luddites

    The Luddites were members of a 19th-century movement of English textile workers, which opposed the use of certain types of machinery and they destroy the machines in clandestine raids.
  • First Commercial Train

    First Commercial Train
    In 1812 the Middleton Railway became the first commercial railway to successfully use steam locomotives
  • La Pepa

    On March 19, 1812, the Cortes Generales of Spain, meeting in Cádiz, promulgated the country's first Constitution, considered one of the most liberal of its time. As it is Saint Joseph's Day, it is popularly known as 'La Pepa'.
  • The Treaty of Valençay

    The Treaty of Valençay
    The Treaty of Valençay, after the château of the same name belonging to former French foreign minister Charles Maurice de Talleyrand, was drafted by Antoine René Mathurin and José Miguel de Carvajal y Manrique on behalf of the French Empire and the Spanish Crown respectively.
  • Locomotive

    A locomotive or engine is a rail transport vehicle that provides the motive power for a train.
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    The Treaty of Fontainebleau was an agreement concluded in Fontainebleau, France, on 11 April 1814 between Napoleon and representatives of Austria, Russia and Prussia.
  • Independence of Argentina

    Independence of Argentina
    What today is commonly referred as the Independence of Argentina was declared on July 9, 1816, by the Congress of Tucumán.
  • Independence of Colombia

    Independence of Colombia
    The independence of Colombia was the historical process that ended the period governed by the Spanish Empire in the current territory of the country. This process was fought in the midst of a conflict developed between 1810 and 1819, a conflict that was fought to emancipate the territories that then included the Viceroyalty of New Granada.
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    Trienio Liberal

    The Liberal Trienio is the period in the contemporary history of Spain that runs between 1820 and 1823. This revolutionary period caused the occupation of Spain by the French army of the One Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis, who crossed the Pyrenees on April 7, 1823. It ended on October 1, 1823 when King Ferdinand VII dissolved the Cortes and reestablished the absolute monarchy.
  • Independence of Mexico

    Independence of Mexico
    The Mexican War of Independence (Spanish: Guerra de Independencia de México, 16 September 1810 – 27 September 1821) was an armed conflict and political process resulting in Mexico's independence from the Spanish Empire.
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    Ominous Decade

    Ominous Decade is a term for the last ten years of the reign of King Ferdinand VII of Spain, dating from the abolition of the Spanish Constitution of 1812, on 1 October 1823, to his death on 29 September 1833.
  • Independence of Peru

    Independence of Peru
    The Peruvian War of Independence was a series of military conflicts in Peru from 1809 to 1826 that resulted in the country's independence from the Spanish Empire. Part of the broader Spanish American wars of independence, it led to the dissolution of the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru.
  • Independence of Chile

    Independence of Chile
    The Chilean War of Independence (Spanish: Guerra de la Independencia de Chile, 'War of Independence of Chile') was a military and political event that allowed the emancipation of Chile from the Spanish Monarchy, ending the colonial period and initiating the formation of an independent republic.
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    First Carlist War

    civil war in Spain from 1833 to 1840,
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    Effective Reign of Elizabeth II

    Elizabeth II was Queen of Spain from 1833 until her deposition in 1868. She is the only queen regnant in the history of unified Spain.Isabella was the elder daughter of King Ferdinand VII and Queen Maria Christina. Shortly before Isabella's birth, her father issued the Pragmatic Sanction to revert the Salic Law and ensure the succession of his firstborn daughter, due to his lack of a son.
  • Expropiation of Mendizábal

    Expropiation of Mendizábal
    The ecclesiastical confiscations of Mendizába, more often referred to simply as la Desamortización in Spanish, were a set of decrees that resulted in the expropriation and privatisation of monastic properties in Spain from 1835 to 1837.
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    Chartist Movement

    Carlism is a Spanish political movement of traditionalist and legitimist monarchical character derived from Fernandino realism.
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    Regency of Espartero

    Espartero's regency was the last period of the minority of Isabel II of Spain, so called because, after the triumph of the "revolution of 1840" that put an end to the regency of María Cristina de Borbón, mother of the future queen Isabel II.
  • The Communist Manifesto

    The Communist Manifesto
    is a political pamphlet written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, commissioned by the Communist League and originally published in London in 1848, in which social classes are defined by the relationship of people to the means of production.
  • Expropriation of Madoz

    The Madoz confiscation law is a very long-lived law, since it was applied, with some period of suspension, until well into the 20th century.
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    First International

  • Costitution of 1869

    Costitution of 1869
    The Spanish Constitution of 1869 was the Constitution approved under the Provisional Government of 1868-1871, after the triumph of the Revolution of 1868 that ended the reign of Isabel II.
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    Second industrial revolution

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    Reign of Amadeus of Savoy

    Amadeo I of Spain was an Italian prince who reigned as King of Spain from 1870 to 1873.He was elected by the Cortes Generales as Spain's monarch in 1870, following the deposition of Isabel II, and was sworn in the following year.
  • Fundation of PSOE

    Fundation of PSOE
    The PSOE was founded in 1879, making it the oldest party currently active in Spain. The PSOE has been in government longer than any other political party in modern democratic Spain: from 1982 to 1996 under Felipe González, from 2004 to 2011 under José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, and since 2018 under Pedro Sánchez.
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    Second International

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    Regency of Maria Christina

    Maria Christina of Austria was regent of Spain from the death of her husband, Alfonso XII, in November 1885. According to historian Manuel Suárez Cortina, "the Regency" was a particularly significant period in the history of Spain, because in those years at the end of the century the system experienced its stabilization, the development of liberal policies.
  • Trade union

    Trade union
    organisation of workers that want to improve the conditions of their such as attaining better wages and benefices, improving safety, establishing complaint procedures, developing rules and protecting and increasing the bargaining power of workers.
  • Foundation of the CNT

    Foundation of the CNT
    The Confederación Nacional del Trabajo is a Spanish confederation of anarcho-syndicalist labor unions, which was long affiliated with the International Workers' Association.
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    First Republic Bank

    First Republic Bank was a full-service American bank and wealth management company that offered retail banking services.